Science Glossary+

Learn more about our thoughtfully curated ingredients that exist in our products.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Açai

Açai (Euterpe oleracea) has gained much attention as a possible superfood, due to the high antioxidant content of its berries. The açai berry is approximately an inch in diameter and is reddish-purple in color. It comes from the açai palm tree, which is native to Central and South America. Açai is rich in anthocyanins, a polyphenol antioxidant that is responsible for giving the berries their dark red-purple color. Consumption of high anthocyanin-containing foods have been linked to increased protection against oxidativeoxidation stress.*

Acerola Cherry Extract

Acerola cherry (Malpighia emarginata) is the fruit from a small shrub-like tree native to Central and South America. Acerola cherries are a well-known source of vitamin C, making it an antioxidant-rich food. Additionally, these fruits are rich in vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin.

Alfalfa Grass

Alfalfa grass (Medicago sativa), also known as Llucerne, is a perennial pasture legume that is native to Asia and is rich in micronutrients. Alfalfa is a good source of vitamins (particularly B vitamins) and minerals.

Amino acid

Amino acids are the components that help make up proteins. In turn, proteins are the primary building blocks needed to ultimately grow and maintain the body and all its many functions – from building and maintaining healthy muscles, nerves, skin, teeth, bones and much more, to helping generate energy to ensure that the body functions properly. Examples of amino acids are L-glutamine and glycine. There are 21 amino acids common to all life forms, of which nine are essential to humans, meaning we cannot synthesize them and must consume them.

Antioxidant

An antioxidant is a compound that neutralizes or resolves inhibits oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that often produces free radicals, which can lead to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants like vitamins C and E can help combat these oxidative processes.*

AstaReal®

AstaReal® is a premium, sustainable, and naturally-occurring form of astaxanthin derived from green algae. Astaxanthin is responsible for the pinkish to red-orange color in salmon, trout, lobster, shrimp, and other seafood. This carotenoid phytonutrient and potent antioxidant is clinically shown to protect skin cells and help preserve the collagen layer. It has photoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Astaxanthin is clinically shown to help reduce fine lines and age spots and supports skin hydration, elasticity and smoothness.* AstaReal® is a registered trademark of Fuji Chemical Industries Co., Ltd.

Astaxanthin

Astaxanthin is a naturally-occurring carotenoid found in certain algae. Astaxanthin is responsible for the pinkish to red-orange color in salmon, trout, lobster, shrimp, and other seafood. Astaxanthin is a unique phytonutrient and potent antioxidant is clinically shown to protect skin cells and help preserve the collagen layer. It has photoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Astaxanthin is clinically shown to help reduce fine lines and age spots and supports skin hydration, elasticity and smoothness.*

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a naturally occurring chemical molecule found in all living cells. ATP is the main energetic currency within cells and necessary for all cells to live and function. ATP is produced in the mitochondria of cells.

Algal vitamin D3

Algal vitamin D3 (for example, VegD3®) is the purest and most sustainable form of plant-origin vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in the world. Vitamin D3 is the body's preferred form of this essential fat-soluble micronutrient, as it is most effective at raising and maintaining vitamin D levels in the body daily to achieve lifelong sufficiency.*

Avocado oil

High-quality avocado oil from the avocado fruit ( Persea americana) is typically organic and virgin. Avocado oil is rich in oleic acid, a healthy monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found concentrated in the brain and known to have anti-inflammatory properties and support metabolic health.*

Alpha-linolenic acid

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions for health. Plant sources of ALA include, but are not limited to, flaxseeds, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, and their oils. Healthy oils like flaxseed oil are particularly concentrated in this omega-3 fat that is pro-metabolic health. ALA is poorly converted in the body to EPA and DHA.*

Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice

Topical aloe barbadensis leaf juice is a natural humectant, this hydrating botanical comes with several skin care benefits thanks to over 75 different active compounds, including vitamins, minerals, sugars, enzymes, and amino acids. It helps fade dark spots, provides anti-inflammatory benefits, and keeps skin supple. Our aloe is decolorized and certified organic.

Avena sativa (Oat) Kernel Oil

Topical oat extracts are popular additions for sensitive-skin formulas, as they are highly soothing and have anti-inflammatory actions. Oat oil is derived from the stems and leaves of the Avena sativa plant, which is known for its highly nutritious seeds. It’s high in linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid that helps regulate and promote healthy functioning of the skin barrier. Studies also suggest that oat oil has been known to boost ceramide levels in the skin, which help to keep skin cells together.

Anchovy oil

Anchovy oil is a premium type of fish oil that provides a potent amount of marine omega-3s EPA and DHA. The triglyceride form is the native fatty acid form (from the fish) that's most bioavailable to us. Pure anchovy oil comes from 100% sustainably sourced, wild-caught, cold-water Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). The South Pacific is the richest ocean source of anchovies.


B

Beet Root

Beet root (Beta vulgaris) is a common bulbous, sweet, root vegetable rich in carotenoids, vitamin C, and other antioxidants. Studies also suggest that nitrates naturally found in beet root may support healthy cardiovascular and cognitive function and may also help increase physical stamina.* Although it is suspected that beets may be native to regions near the Mediterranean, today beets can be found pretty much worldwide, with France and the United States being among the largest producers.

Beta-glucan

Beta-glucans are a type of fiber found in the cell walls of certain yeasts, bacteria, fungi, algae (like seaweed), along with other plants like oats, barley, wheat, rye, and mushrooms. Beta-glucans serve as a source of energy and structure in these various plant species. Wellmune® beta-glucan is a gluten-free plant fiber derived from the cell walls of baker's yeast. As unique immunomodulators, beta-glucans promote immune resilience and are thought to "train" the body's innate immune cells to mount future responses. Wellmune® beta-glucan is clinically proven to support healthy immune function and strengthen the immune system.*

Bifidobacterium lactis B420

Bifidobacterium lactis B420 is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to helping prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* In fact, studies on Bifidobacterium lactis B420 suggest that this probiotic strain may be beneficial in maintaining a healthy body weight.*

Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07

Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to helping prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* Specifically, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 has been studied regarding its potential benefits on immune function.*

Bifidobacterium lactis HN019

Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 is a specific probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium lactis, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to help prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 has been clinically studied to establish and support healthy flora in the gut and promote gastrointestinal health.*

Biotin

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin and a member of the B vitamin family (vitamin B7, specifically). It is needed to convert certain nutrients into energy and plays an important role in maintaining healthy hair, skin, and nails.* Biotin also supports healthy glucose metabolism by stimulating glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells and by accelerating glucose metabolism in the liver.* Similarly, biotin can enhance muscle insulin sensitivity by increasing the uptake of glucose by muscle cells.*

Black Currant

Black currant (Ribes nigrum) is a woody shrub that produces dark, glossy, blackberries. It is native to the northern regions of Europe and Asia. The berries can be eaten raw but are usually either juiced or cooked and incorporated into various dishes, or used in jams, jellies, and syrups. The fruit and leaves of the plant have been used in traditional folk medicine for bolstering immune health.* Study of the constituents of black currant reveal that it is high in vitamin C and polyphenols, making it a rich antioxidant source.

Bovine Collagen

Bovine collagen is collagen from a bovine (cow) source. [See collagen]

B complex

B complex is a family of essential B vitamins including thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), vitamin B6, biotin (vitamin B7), folate (vitamin B9), and vitamin B12. This powerhouse family of water-soluble vitamins serves a wide range of functions in the body including delivering cellular energy and supporting a healthy metabolism. Riboflavin (B2), vitamin B6, folate (5-MTHF), and vitamin B12 are key enzyme cofactors serving essential roles in methyl group metabolism. When provided in their most bioavailable and bioactive forms, they support a healthy methylation cycle and an array of functions in the body, including heart health, cognitive function, and antioxidant generation.*

Botanical bioactive

Botanicals are the whole plant or plant part-derived bioactives that at sufficient doses aid in supporting cellular resilience and promoting graceful aging and longevity. Botanical bioactives are also sometimes referred to as herbal compounds or phytonutrients/phytochemicals. By definition, bioactives have effects on living organisms, us! When in combination with micronutrients, botanicals provide synergistic support to enhance health-supporting functions and efficacy.*

Boron

Boron is a trace element. Boron has potential beneficial effects on functional areas of health such as calcium metabolism, bone formation, brain health, energy metabolism, and function of steroid hormones.*

Black pepper extract

Black pepper extract, Piper nigrum, is a botanical bioactive. Its active component, piperine, has been clinically shown to be a bioavailability enhancer of other compounds (e.g., resveratrol) through various mechanisms. Besides its complementary action of enhancing other botanical and nutrient compounds, piperine also demonstrates antioxidant function and supports a healthy inflammatory response.*

Butyrospermum parkii (Shea) Butter

Topical shea butter is made from the fat extracted from the nuts of the shea tree, a plant native to West Africa. Rich in triglycerides, fatty acids, and vitamins, shea butter is an excellent emollient and can help skin reduce moisture loss. It also gives this hand cream its decadent, soft texture.


C

Carotenoid

Carotenoids are a class of phytonutrients in the cells of plants, algae, and bacteria, that have a range of colors from bright yellow to deep red pigments. Carotenoids help these organisms absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis. A few of the most common carotenoids include beta carotene (i.e., vitamin A), lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene. When consumed by humans, these carotenoids act as potent antioxidants providing phytonutrient support for immune, brain, heart, eye, and whole-body health by helping protect the body’s cells from free radical damage.*

Ceramosides®

Ceramosides® is a proprietary, highly concentrated, gluten-free phytoceramide extract from wheat (Triticum vulgare) that may be consumed as a dietary supplement or applied topically for improving skin hydration.* The unique process involved in making Ceramosides® concentrates the skin-friendly lipids, eliminating the gluten-containing proteins, resulting in a gluten-free phytoceramide extract. Ceramides are skin-critical lipids known to decrease with age. This unique beauty bioactive is essential for skin barrier structure, function and homeostasis. Ceramosides® have been clinically shown to reduce dryness and wrinkles, while significantly improving skin hydration, elasticity, and smoothness.* Ceramosides® is a registered trademark of E.P.I. France.

Chlorella

Chlorella is a type of single-celled green algae, rich in nutrients, including protein, B vitamins, iron, the antioxidant vitamin C, and essential fatty acids.

Cinnamon Bark Extract

Cinnamon is a well-known spice obtained from the tree bark of the several different species varieties from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon bark has been widely used as a spice in food and drink, and in fragrances. Cinnamon bark has also been widely used in traditional herbalism for its potential benefit in digestive and immune support.* Clinical studies also indicate cinnamon can help maintain healthy blood sugar levels.*

Cocoa

Cocoa powder is derived from cacao trees often from regions like South America and Africa. High-quality cocoa beans are roasted and ground to retain the highest nutritional value. This delicious and natural, plant-based source of chocolate comes in organic varieties.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a potent antioxidant found in every cell of the human body, even the skin. Concentrated in mitochondria (the energy powerhouses of cells), CoQ10 is required for cellular energy production and rejuvenation. The ubiquinol form of CoQ10 is clinically shown to have superior bioavailability and bioactivity than the ubiquinone form of CoQ10. Ubiquinol has been clinically shown to increase CoQ10 levels (which decline with age) and reduce oxidative stress. CoQ10 supports skin elasticity and smoothness, while combating wrinkles.*

Collagen

Collagen is the primary structural protein in the extracellular space of the various connective tissues in the body, particularly tendons, ligaments, and skin or hides. The body’s ability to produce collagen can decrease with age, and the more stress placed on the body, the greater the potential for insufficient collagen to be available to meet demand. Consequently, getting collagen through a balanced diet can help the body regain what may have been lost.* Collagen is rich in amino acids, which are key in supporting healthy connective tissue, skin, hair, and nails, as well as maintaining healthy digestive function.*

Curcumin

Curcumin is a bright yellow bioactive compound found particularly in turmeric root (Curcuma longa). It is used in Asian and Indian cultures in foods, cosmetics, and herbal medicine preparations. Clinical studies on curcumin have revealed many potential health benefits, including the support of healthy cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and musculoskeletal functions.* Curcumin also serves as a potent antioxidant flavonoid that helps maintain the body's normal inflammatory response.*

Chelation

Chelation is a process of the bonding of ions and organic compounds (e.g., amino acids) to metal ions. Mineral amino acid chelates for example have been scientifically shown to allow for a more absorbable and gentle form that simultaneously elevates bioavailability in the body without compromising absorption of other nutrients. The gentleness of these forms of minerals is largely due to chelated minerals being absorbed intact, while then breaking apart in the intestinal cell for transport throughout the body.*

Calcium

Calcium is a macromineral and the most abundant mineral in the human body. Calcium plays a major structural role in bone and teeth. Calcium functions throughout the body support its role in many areas, including bone, joint, muscle, nerve, and heart health. Calcium in the circulatory system modulates vessel contraction and dilation, and muscle function. Calcium sufficiency in the body is essential for bone health, growth, nerve functioning, and cellular signaling throughout the body, making it an important nutritional focus area.*

Copper

Copper is an essential micromineral. Copper acts as a cofactor for several enzymes important for energy production, neurotransmission, iron metabolism, and connective tissue maturation. Copper also supports the function of macrophages and enhances natural killer cell activity to support immune health. Copper enzymes also catalyze reactions necessary for brain and nervous system function.*

Chromium

Chromium is a micromineral that plays a role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Most of chromium's action in the body is through its influence on modulating insulin action. Chromium's action and function and implication for cardiometabolic health and cellular energy and metabolism.*

Caprylyl Caprylate/Caprate

Caprylyl caprylate/caprate is a natural emollient derived from coconut oil. Emollients are used in topical formulas to keep a formula smooth and easy to apply, as well as hydrate the skin.

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride

Caprylic/capric triglyceride is a skin conditioning agent when used in topical formulas. It is made from coconut oil and glycerin, and helps create a barrier on the skin to combat moisture loss.

Cetearyl Alcohol

Topical cetearyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol derived from plant oils. It's made of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol, two fatty alcohols also used in skin care. It has several functions in skin care: Cetearyl alcohol helps ingredients stay mixed, thanks to its emulsifying properties. This is key for keeping the formula stable and effective. It can also help thicken ingredients and make formulas easier to apply.

Cetearyl Olivate

Topical cetearyl olivate is an ester that comes from cetearyl alcohol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It is used as a skin care emulsifier.

Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) Fruit Extract

Topical Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract is a natural topical ingredient created from watermelons. It is part of a natural antioxidant complex found in some of our topical formulations. Together, the Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract create a complex that delivers a wide range of skin-supporting nutrients and benefits like citrulline and polysaccharides for water retention, vitamin B5 to smooth skin, and trisaccharides to enhance epidermal barrier function.

Chlorella vulgaris Extract

Topical Chlorella vulgaris extract is a prebiotic from a unique microalgae technology that has a broad-spectrum effect. In in vitro studies, this extract has been shown to promote S. epidermis (the main beneficial skin microbiome species) and balance detrimental species like M. furfur and S. aureus. Thanks to this ability to nurture a healthy skin biome, it’s been shown to have a calming effect on the skin as it confers anti-inflammatory support for an unbalanced microbiome.

Citric Acid

Topical citric acid is a weak alpha hydroxy acid used in formulas to adjust the pH of the formula so it is more acidic, like the skin’s natural acidity.

Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Oil

Coconut oil is a popular body care ingredient that gives our lotion a lighter slip and consistency—while maintaining ample hydration. Research shows coconut oil can help promote moisture levels in the skin (it has an occlusive effect, meaning it seals in hydration), as well as support skin barrier function.


D

Digestive Enzymes

Digestive enzymes are substances produced by the body to facilitate the digestion of food.* The enzymes are secreted by the body help to break down macronutrient food components such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.* Because of age or because of individual physiological differences or deficits, the body may not be able to produce adequate amounts of enzymes to support normal digestion.* Hence, supplementary digestive enzymes may be needed.*

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, made up of a 22-carbon chain and six double bonds. DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) come mainly from fish and fish oil, so are often referred to as marine omega-3s. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but in very limited amounts, therefore adequate dietary intake and supplementation are of great benefit to achieve sufficiency. EPA and DHA support overall wellness, including heart, brain, joint, eye and perinatal health. DHA is particularly concentrated in the central nervous system (brain, eyes) and is important for mothers to consume during pregnancy and lactation to support baby’s development.*


E

Extra virgin olive oil

High-quality extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is typically organic and cold pressed from the olive fruit (Olea europaea), which is cultivated using sustainable methods and concentrated in oleic acid, the hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*

Emulsifier

A variety of topical compounds used to stabilize oil-in-water skin care formulas, ensuring a homogenous mixture of ingredients and smooth product.

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an important long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid made up of a 20-carbon chain and five double bonds. EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) come mainly from fish and fish oil, so are often referred to as marine omega-3s. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but in very limited amounts, therefore adequate dietary intake and supplementation are of great benefit to achieve sufficiency. EPA and DHA support overall wellness, including heart, brain, joint, eye, and perinatal health.*


F

Flaxseed oil

High-quality flaxseed oil is typically, organic, virgin, and cold pressed from seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.) and delivers a powerful source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions for health.*

Fat-soluble vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins include four essential vitamins: A, D, E, and K. In contrast to water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins can be dissolved by fats (and oils) and are stored in the body in the liver and fatty tissue. When absorbed, fat-soluble vitamins travel through the small intestine and are distributed through the body via the bloodstream.

Folate

Folate, also known as vitamin B9, is an essential water-soluble B vitamin. Folate, especially its bioactive L-5-MTHF form, serves a vital role in brain health, heart health, and cellular energy and metabolism. Folate enzymes play a critical role in the mediation and transfer of one-carbon units, which is also crucial for the metabolism of nucleic acids and amino acids. Before serving as a coenzyme for one-carbon transfer, folate requires activation by being reduced to the L-5-MTHF form, the form of circulating folate in the body for transport into peripheral tissues. Additionally, folate is a vital component of the methylation cycle, supporting its role in maintaining normal healthy cellular function.*

Fish oil

Fish oil from oily fish (e.g., anchovies, sardines, mackerel, salmon, etc.) delivers a concentrated source of healthy, polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. Source, potency, form, purity, quality, sustainability, and transparency (e.g., of fish species and origin) are all important components of fish oils’ health promoting benefits. Daily intake of quality fish oil supports whole-body health and wellness conferred via EPA and DHA antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cellular health actions throughout the body.*


G

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major calming brain chemical or neurotransmitter. Its primary role is to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.*

Ginger

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome (ginger root) is widely used by many cultures as a spice and as an herbal remedy. Among its many possible health benefits, ginger has been used to promote healthy digestion and to support immune function.*

Gluten

You won't find gluten in our products. Gluten is a complex mixture of proteins – glutenins and gliadins – present in cereal grains, particularly varieties and derivatives of wheat (e.g., durum, spelt, semolina, rye, barley, triticale, etc.). It is the substance responsible for giving dough its elastic texture. Consumption of gluten elicits autoimmune reactions in people with celiac disease.

GMO

You won't find GMOs in our products. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are living organisms whose genetic material has been artificially manipulated in a laboratory through genetic engineering. Such manipulations can include any combination of plant, animal, bacteria, and/or virus genes to produce organisms that do not occur in nature or that can be achieved through traditional crossbreeding methods.

Grass-fed

The term “grass-fed” refers to animals--typically cattle--allowed to forage and graze for their own fresh food, as opposed to being grain-fed.

Green Tea Leaf Extract

Green tea leaf extract is a preparation of leaves from the tea plant Camellia sinensis. Green tea is rich in antioxidants called flavonoids and polyphenols. Consequently, many health benefits are associated with drinking green tea. Green tea extracts can increase natural energy expenditure and support fat oxidation.* The polyphenols in green tea also provide antioxidant support and liver-protective properties.*

Glutathione

Glutathione (i.e., L-glutathione) is a potent bioactive tripeptide antioxidant. Commonly known as the “master antioxidant,” glutathione is present in every cell in the body to act in nutrient metabolism and regulation of cellular events. It is the most abundant endogenous antioxidant and serves as a critical regulator of oxidative stress. Glutathione supplementation enhances the glutathione content of essential tissues. Glutathione functions as a potent antioxidant to support health functions, including cellular longevity and immune and brain support. Setria® glutathione is a premium, fermentation-derived glutathione that boasts clinically proven bioavailability and absorption to elevate glutathione storage and status in the body.*

Glycerin

Topical glycerin is a type of humectant—or an ingredient that attracts and holds water—that is often used in skin care products. Glycerin is actually a naturally occurring compound in the skin, and helps to hydrate and condition the barrier. For topical skin care formulas, the ingredient is derived from vegetable oils.

Glyceryl Stearate

Topical glyceryl stearate is an emulsifier in skin care products.

Glyceryl Caprylate

Topical glyceryl caprylate is a glycerin-derived emulsifier typically used to stabilize oil-in-water skin care formulas.

Gluconolactone

Topical gluconolactone is used as a topical preservative system. In our formulas we use a natural, patented preservative system known as Geogard Ultra®. It is a synergistic blend of gluconolactone and sodium benzoate that not only has broad spectrum preservation efficacy, but can actually contribute to skin hydration. Most organic preservation acids are too weak on their own and require a co-preservative. In this case, gluconolactone acts as a booster for sodium benzoate by time-releasing gluconic acid so it can be more effective for longer periods of time. The blend is in compliance with ECOCERT/COSMOS, NATRUE and the Soil Association, organizations that have some of the highest standards in the EU.


H

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyaluronic acid is a polysaccharide molecule, naturally present in the human body, and is one of the key components of connective tissue. High concentrations of hyaluronic acid are found in the eyes and the joints. Hyaluronic acid serves as a cushion or lubricant in the joints and other tissues.* It also helps to retain moisture in the skin.*

Hydroxyethylcellulose

Topical hydroxyethylcellulose is an emulsifier and thickening agent derived from cellulose, the main component of plant cell walls.


I

Inflammation

Inflammation, when acute, is a normal, localized physical process in which part of the body becomes temporarily reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.

Iron

Iron is an essential micromineral and vital for hundreds of proteins and enzymes. Iron plays a role in physiologic functions necessary for oxygen transport, cellular energy and metabolism, and DNA synthesis. As an essential component of myoglobin, oxygen providing protein, iron supports muscle and healthy connective tissue. Numerous enzymes are dependent on iron for DNA repair and replication. Iron also helps the brain's high respiratory needs as well as the production of multiple neurotransmitters. Irons regulation of differentiation and growth of epithelial tissues and modulation of inflammatory response also demonstrates its immune function capacity.*

Iodine

Iodine is an essential micromineral. Iodine plays a critical role in producing thyroid hormones and thus directly supports thyroid function. Thyroid hormones play a pivotal role in whole-body well-being, as they play a role in protein synthesis, enzymatic activity, metabolic activity, body composition, cardiovascular function, mental well-being, and several other biochemical processes. A further function of iodine includes regulation during normal growth, development, and metabolism.*


J

Jujube Fruit

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) is a shrub-like tree, the fruit of which has been used in Asian cuisine and in Traditional Chinese Medicine for gastrointestinal and digestive support, and for calming and sleep-supportive properties.*


K

Kelp

Kelp is the general term for a variety of large, brown algae (also commonly referred to as a type of seaweed) that is found worldwide in shallow, nutrient-rich saltwater. Depending on the particular type of kelp there can be slight differences in color, flavor, and nutrient profile. Kelp is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals such as vitamins A, B1, B2, C, D and E, zinc, iodine, magnesium, iron, potassium, copper and calcium.


L

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a beneficial bacterium. Well-researched, the NCFM strain has been shown in clinical trials to support various aspects of gastrointestinal health immune function.*

Lectins

You'll find no or very low lectins in our products. Lectins are proteins naturally found in plants. The role of lectins is to protect the plant as it grows. Some foods that are relatively high in lectins include beans, peanuts, lentils, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, fruits, and wheat and other grains. Lectins typically do not have much nutritional value when consumed in foods. That said, some lectins may promote inflammatory responses in sensitive or susceptible individuals. As such, it is advised that susceptible individuals avoid or greatly reduce their intake of high-lectin foods and/or dietary supplements containing high-lectin foods.

L-glutamine

L-glutamine is the most prevalent amino acid in the bloodstream. It is also found in high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. This is because cells in the gut rely on L-glutamine to regenerate and keep the intestinal lining healthy and robust.* L-glutamine also supports healthy immune function and assists in healing for muscle cell repair and maintenance.*

Lutein

Lutein is a phytonutrient macular carotenoid found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables and marigold flowers. Lutein is essential for the development of key layers of the retina (macula for example) and is the predominant carotenoid in human brain tissue. Lutein’s antioxidant capacity allows it to limit retinal oxidative damage, provide photoprotection from UV exposure effects on eye health, enhance the reduction of reactive radicals, and support a healthy inflammatory response. Consistent and daily intake of lutein aids in supporting visual function and protection and essentiality of macular carotenoids in the “digital age”.*

Lycopene

Lycopene is a phytonutrient and powerful lipophilic antioxidant among carotenoids. Offering the pigment that gives red and pink fruit, tomato, for example, their characteristic color. Lycopene has a strong ability to aid cellular resilience through modulating signaling pathways and acting as a radical scavenger to combat oxidative stress, with clinical relevance for cardiometabolic function, healthy skin, and more.*

Lactobacillus Ferment

Lactobacillus ferment is a topical postbiotic. This new generation of active ingredients nurtures the skin microbiome and the skin itself by supplying it with peptides and short-chain fatty acids. Our special biotech postbiotic comes from Lactobacillus, the “educational” bacteria that teaches the skin to protect itself, encourages more vibrant appearance, and is appropriate for sensitive skin. It has been shown to support anti-inflammatory pathways, regulate microcirculation, and activate the skin’s immune system.

Lens esculenta (Lentil) Fruit Extract

Topical Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract is a natural topical ingredient created from lentils. It is part of a natural antioxidant complex found in some of our topical formulations. Together, the Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract create a complex that delivers a wide range of skin-supporting nutrients and benefits like citrulline and polysaccharides for water retention, vitamin B5 to smooth skin, and trisaccharides to enhance epidermal barrier function.

Lemon oil

Lemon oil is an essential oil from the citrus fruit, lemon. Organic lemon oil from U.S.-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon) can be used as a natural strategy to combat fishy aftertaste in fish oil supplements. Furthermore, the aromatic organic lemon oil delivers an additional antioxidant citrus punch.*


M

Magnesium Bisglycinate

Magnesium bisglycinate is a chelate form of magnesium that binds the mineral to the amino acid glycine. Magnesium bisglycinate has demonstrated greater absorption of magnesium than other specific forms of magnesium compounds.*

Magnesium Stearate

You won't find magnesium stearate in our products. Magnesium stearate is a white water-insoluble powder made of magnesium and the saturated fat, stearic acid. It is a common additive in processed foods, drugs, and dietary supplements. Magnesium stearate powder is very fine and slippery. Consequently, it serves as a good lubricant or “flow agent” in the manufacturing of dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals by helping the active ingredients “flow” through the machinery more easily during production. Although magnesium is part of the compound, magnesium stearate itself has minimal nutritional value.

Marine collagen

Collagen from a marine source, typically from fish.

Microbiome

A microbiome is the combined genetic material of the microorganisms, (e.g., bacteria, bacteriophages, fungi, protozoa and viruses) in a given environment. For example, the human microbiome refers to the collective genetic material of all microorganisms living inside and on the human body. Different microbiomes (e.g., the gut microbiome, oral microbiome, skin microbiome, vaginal microbiome, etc.) contain unique types and diversity of microorganisms.

Mitochondria

Mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) is an organelle, or small organ, within a living cell that is responsible for producing the energy needed to fuel the cell and its functions. Mitochondria are often referred to as the “powerhouses” of cells. Multiple mitochondria are often found in cells, particularly those in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.

Monk Fruit Extract

Monk fruit extract is a low-carb sweetener derived by clean, water extraction of 100% pure monk fruit, native to Asia (also known as luo han guo and “Buddha fruit”). Mogrosides, the unique compounds in monk fruit that deliver its natural sweetness, have antioxidant properties and are blood sugar-friendly.* This delicious and natural, plant-based sweetener comes in organic varieties.

Macromineral

Macrominerals make up one of the two major groups of essential minerals needed by the body daily. While equally important, micro minerals are needed in smaller amounts than that of the macrominerals. Macrominerals include sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur.

Micromineral

Microminerals, also known as trace minerals, make up one of the two major groups of essential minerals needed by the body daily. While equally important, microminerals are needed in smaller amounts than macrominerals. Microminerals include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum.

Marine mineral

Marine minerals offer a unique and naturally bioavailable rich mineral source from the ocean. For example, the Lithomamnion genus, specifically Lithothamnion calcareum, a red alga of the Corallinacea family, offers a whole-plant mineral-rich algae source of calcium. This is the marine form of calcium carbonate but it is structurally different from traditional calcium carbonate. Further, seawater offers a bioavailable mineral source of magnesium that offers a higher solubility than magnesium oxide in water.*

Methylation

Methylation is a cellular process that includes the transfer of four atoms (CH3) from one substance to another. Optimal methylation processes are critical for the health and functioning of cardiovascular, neurological, and detoxification systems, to name a few. The methylation cycle in the body is supported by a number of essential micronutrients that help balance the cycle and support personal differences in individuals’ abilities to methylate properly and optimally.*

Magnesium

Magnesium is a macromineral required by over 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Magnesium plays a role in bone, muscle, nerve, heart, immune health, cellular energy, and metabolism. Magnesium plays a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, is required for DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, and serves as a cofactor for synthesizing antibodies. Cell signaling, nerve transmission, and ion transport channels all rely on magnesium for proper functioning. Further, a high percentage of magnesium is found in bone, supporting its role in bone stabilization, mineralization, and overall maintenance.*

Manganese

Manganese is an essential micromineral. Manganese plays a role in activating enzymes that are important for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. Manganese is both a constituent of a number of enzymes and acts as an activator of other enzymes. The further function of manganese is seen through its antioxidant capacity as a free radical scavenger, role in bone formation, and immune response.*

Molybdenum

Molybdenum is an essential micromineral. As a cofactor to various enzymes, molybdenum plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, nucleotide metabolism, and the support of enzymes involved in detoxification pathways.*

Mannitol

Topical mannitol is a plant-derived sugar that is used as a binding agent, and part of the topical Lactobacillus ferment postbiotic complex. Please see Lactobacillus ferment for more information on postbiotics.

Moringa oleifera Seed Oil

Topical ​​moringa seed oil is derived from the Moringa oleifera tree indigenous to the Himalayan mountains in Northern India. It is rich in antioxidants, monounsaturated fatty acids, and oleic acids that promote a strong skin barrier. The antioxidants have skin-smoothing and brightening properties, too.


N

Niacin

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin. Tissues in the body convert niacin into its metabolically active form, the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Over 400 enzymes rely upon NAD for proper functioning, the greatest number out of any other vitamin-derived coenzyme. Niacin also functions to support cellular energy production from food and has been shown to promote lipid-modulatory effects that offer potential cardiometabolic health functions.*


O

Oleic acid

Oleic acid is a specific type of healthy monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found concentrated in the brain and known to have anti-inflammatory properties and support metabolic health. Healthy oils like avocado and extra virgin olive oils are concentrated in oleic acid, a hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*

Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega-3 fatty acids are healthy unsaturated (specifically, polyunsaturated) fats that incorporate into cell membranes in organs throughout our body. These fats are incorporated in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes throughout the body and are critical for membrane fluidity and cellular signaling pathways. Omega-3s are particularly concentrated in the brain and eyes (e.g., DHA). They have particular relevance for a wide variety of health areas, due to their widespread presence in the body (when they are adequately consumed) . Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential plant-derived omega-3 fatty acid (e.g., from flax), while eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are marine-sourced (e.g., fish, fish oils, algal oils). Omega-3s, especially EPA and DHA, are known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in the body and for their pro-cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, joint mobility, perinatal health, and vision support qualities.*

Omega-9 fatty acid

Omega-9 fatty acids are healthy unsaturated (specifically, monounsaturated) fats that incorporate into cell membranes in organs throughout our body. These fats are particularly concentrated in the brain and known to have anti-inflammatory properties and support metabolic health. Oleic acid is a specific and the most famous type of omega-9 fatty acid. Healthy oils like avocado and extra virgin olive oils are particularly concentrated in oleic acid, a hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*

ORIVO

ORIVO certification is a rigorous 3rd party testing program in Norway that leverages evidence-based technology to guarantee omega-3 product authenticity and transparency. ORIVO’s state-of-the-art testing methods in Norway utilize advanced fingerprinting technology called magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which verifies the species and geographic origin of the fish found in the fish oil. ORIVO certification is rare to find on U.S. fish oil brands.

Omega-3 index

The omega-3 index is a biomarker of long-term omega-3 status. The index measures both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood and represents the percentage of EPA and DHA present in total red blood cell fatty acids. The omega-3 index is modifiable through diet and targeted supplementation (i.e., fish oil), with higher percentages being associated with healthy omega-3 status and greater cardioprotection.*


P

Pasture-raised

The term “pasture-raised” refers to animals that have spent at least some time outdoors on pasture, feeding on grass or allowed to forage.

PharmaGABA®

PharmaGABA® is a naturally-sourced dietary supplement form of GABA, a neurotransmitter whose primary role is to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.* PharmaGABA® is produced via a unique fermentation process that utilizes Lactobacillus hilgardii, the same bacteria that is used to ferment cabbage in the preparation of the traditional Asian dish known as kimchi. PharmaGABA® is the a registered trademark for GABA of Pharma Foods International Co., Ltd.

Phytoceramides

Phytoceramides (AKA plant ceramides) are plant-derived, concentrated skin-critical lipids known to decrease with age. This unique beauty bioactive is essential for skin barrier structure, function and homeostasis. Phytoceramides have been clinically shown to reduce dryness and wrinkles, while significantly improving skin hydration, elasticity, and smoothness.*

Prebiotic

A prebiotic compound is a substance, often in the form of a dietary fiber, that when consumed--either in food or as a dietary supplement--promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.*

Probiotic

A probiotic is a substance comprised of or containing one or more types of live microorganisms, that when consumed--either in food, beverage, dietary supplement--in adequate amounts helps maintain or restore beneficial bacteria to that environment and confer health support.*

Pomegranate whole fruit extract

Pomegranate whole fruit extract is a premium botanical extract from the pomegranate fruit, which is concentrated in antioxidants. Harvested from pomegranate orchards, this ingredient leverages the whole fruit synergy in a native pomegranate extract. Promoting cellular resilience and anti-inflammatory properties for healthy aging, this superfruit extract is clinically shown to enhance antioxidant responses and skin photoprotection from UV damage.*

pomma+®

pomma+® is a premium pomegranate whole fruit botanical extract concentrated in antioxidants. Harvested from California orchards, pomma+® leverages whole fruit synergy in a native pomegranate extract. Promoting cellular resilience and anti-inflammatory properties for healthy aging, this superfruit extract is clinically shown to enhance antioxidant responses and skin photoprotection from UV damage.* pomma+® is a registered trademark of Hawkins, Inc., parent company of STAUBER.

Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, is a water-soluble essential nutrient. A significant function of this B vitamin is the synthesis of coenzyme A and acyl carrier proteins. Coenzyme A is a necessary component of an array of biochemical reactions that support well-being, including the activity of several proteins, as well as fatty acid synthesis and degradation. Pantothenic acid also demonstrates potential lipid-modulating effects, including positive effects on HDL cholesterol and a role in cellular energy and metabolism.*

Potassium

Potassium is an essential macromineral, present in all tissues in the body and necessary for normal cellular function. Tight regulation of potassium inside and outside of cells (often called cell membrane potential) is essential for nerve signaling and healthy biological processes. Potassium also affects calcium balance and has a close relationship with sodium. When potassium is consumed in sufficient amounts, it can support functional health areas such as bone and muscle function.*

Pyrus malus (Apple) Fruit Extract

Topical Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract is a natural topical ingredient created from apple skin stem cells. It is part of a natural antioxidant complex found in some of our topical formulations. Together, the Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract create a complex that delivers a wide range of skin-supporting nutrients and benefits like citrulline and polysaccharides for water retention, vitamin B5 to smooth skin, and trisaccharides to enhance epidermal barrier function.

Propanediol

Topical propanediol, also known as 1,3-propanediol, is a colorless liquid that's naturally derived from corn glucose, or corn sugar. It is an excellent and safe solvent, which means it effectively dissolves other ingredients in the formula. Propanediol has a synthetic cousin named propylene glycol, or 1,2-propanediol. It's also easy to confuse the two, as they're both types of propanediol. But propylene glycol has been recently found to cause allergic reactions, whereas propanediol is well tolerated. It is part of our prebiotic complex. Please see Chlorella vulgaris extract for more information.

Proresolving mediators

Proresolving mediators (PMs) or specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) are bioactive lipid mediators derived from specific omega-6 and omega-3 fats. PMs belong to four families: omega-6 arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins and omega-3 EPA- and DHA-derived resolvins, protectins, and maresins. These omega-3 derived bioactive lipids fromEPA and DHA omega-3s from fish oil are critically important, with principal roles in supporting active resolution of inflammatory pathways, immune response and balance, and promotion of cellular resilience.*


Q

Quercetin

Quercetin is a plant-based powerhouse antioxidant and potent immunomodulator.* Quercetin is found in key fruits and vegetables, as well as Japanese pagoda tree flowers. The unique phytosome form is a liposomal format that enhances bioavailability.* In addition to supporting immune resilience through antioxidant actions, quercetin also has antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, promoting a balanced immune response.*


R

Riboflavin

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a water-soluble vitamin that is a precursor for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) coenzymes. These enzymes play a vital role in energy production reactions and metabolic pathways. Riboflavin also demonstrates antioxidant function while having a role in immunity and brain function. With a role in glutathione recycling, riboflavin also supports the body’s detoxification systems. Support of riboflavin is also needed for a healthy methylation cycle in the body as riboflavin aids in the synthesis, conversion, and recycling of niacin, folate, and B6, all essential components for maintenance and regulation of the vital cycle.*

Resveratrol

Resveratrol (i.e., trans-resveratrol) is a botanical bioactive from Polygonum cuspidatum root extract that supports vitality. Resveratrol acts as a potent antioxidant, supporting various facets of longevity like combating oxidative stress, promoting oxidant balance, and cellular resilience. Its direct antioxidant ability allows for targeting of inflammatory components, immune-regulatory effects, mitochondrial health and protection, neuroprotective role, and support of cardiometabolic health.*

Rosemary extract

Rosemary extract comes from the evergreen herb, rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). It is a fragrant botanical from the mint family. The antioxidants found in the rosemary plant naturally support the freshness and shelf-life of fish oil supplements.


S

Shellac

You won't find shellac in our products. Quite different from the varnish-like substance used in woodworking projects, this shellac is a resinous substance secreted by the insect, Laccifer lacca (lac), that is used in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries for its clear-coating and adhesive properties. Essentially it is what gives some medicinal tablets their shiny look.

Sirtuins (SIRT)

Sirtuins (encoded by SIRT genes) are a family of proteins that play a role in aging by regulating cellular health. They are responsible for critical biological functions like DNA expression and aspects of aging. SIRT rely heavily on the presence of NAD+, derived from vitamin B3, niacin. Because SIRT activity is so dependent on NAD+, the two compounds are linked to cellular lifespan, metabolism, and even regulation of inflammatory processes. As NAD+ pools decline naturally during the aging process, SIRT function will decline as well. Consequently, maintaining optimal levels of NAD+ will also help maintain healthy SIRT activity and promote optimal mitochondrial function and may help support healthy aging.*

Sulforaphane Glucosinolate

Sulforaphane glucosinolate (SGS) is a natural substance extracted from the seeds and sprouts of cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. SGS has "indirect" antioxidant properties, helping protect cells from free radical damage.* Typical antioxidants, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, work "directly" to neutralize free radicals and are usually effective soon after they are consumed.* By contrast, when SGS is ingested and begins to break down in the gut, it releases sulforaphane, thereby activating the body's natural detoxification and antioxidant enzymes and providing more indirect, yet broad support against free radicals and oxidative processes.*

Setria® glutathione

Setria® glutathione is a bioactive antioxidant derived purely from microbial fermentation created by industry leaders in amino acid technology. This form offers the powerful tripeptide vital antioxidant with clinically proven bioavailability and absorption to elevate glutathione storage and status in the body. Setria® glutathione offers clinical evidence for its actions as a critical regulator of oxidative stress and immune function.*

Selenium

Selenium is an essential micromineral. As a constituent of numerous selenoproteins, selenium plays a vital role in thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant function, and DNA synthesis. With antioxidant properties, selenium aids in combating DNA damage and oxidative stress in cells.*

Silica

Silica is a trace mineral and the third most abundant trace element in the body. Silica shows benefit in protection and support of skin strength and elasticity, collagen synthesis, and hydroxylating enzymes, demonstrating beneficial effects on skin and bone health and function.*

Sorbitan Olivate

Topical sorbitan olivate is an ester coming from sorbitol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It is used as a skin care emulsifier.

Squalene

Topical squalene is an oil naturally produced by the skin. It is a vital part of its sebum—sebum protects skin and keeps you hydrated—and you can help improve your skin barrier function by applying it topically. In our topical formulas, we use non-hydrolyzed squalene form, which is extracted from olives. This form of the ingredient is great for dry areas of skin such as the hands and body.

Sodium Benzoate

Topical sodium benzoate is used as a topical preservative system. In our formulas we use a natural, patented preservative system known as Geogard Ultra®. It is a synergistic blend of gluconolactone and sodium benzoate that not only has broad spectrum preservation efficacy, but can actually contribute to skin hydration. Most organic preservation acids are too weak on their own and require a co-preservative. In this case, gluconolactone acts as a booster for sodium benzoate by time-releasing gluconic acid so it can be more effective for longer periods of time. The blend is in compliance with ECOCERT/COSMOS, NATRUE and the Soil Association, organizations that have some of the highest standards in the EU.

Sodium Lactate

Topical sodium lactate can be used as a humectant, as is a naturally occurring part of the natural, clean Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract complex. Please see any of those entries for more information.

Sodium PCA

Topical sodium PCA is a conditioning agent and an amino acid derivative—it is a naturally occurring part of the natural, clean Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract complex. Please see any of those entries for more information.

Sodium Hydroxide

Topical sodium hydroxide Is a pH balancer and often used at low-levels in skin care to keep a formula’s pH stable.

Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate

Sodium stearoyl lactylate is a biodegradable, oil-in-water emulsifying agent. See emulsifier for more information.


T

Turmeric

A member of the same plant family as ginger, turmeric (Curcuma longa), is a flowering plant whose rhizome (turmeric root) is commonly used, particularly in Indian and Asian cultures, as a culinary spice. Turmeric is rich in curcumin, which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese medicine, and other herbalist traditions for centuries for its health promoting properties. Modern research has shown curcumin to be a potent antioxidant with many potential health benefits.*

Trace mineral

Trace minerals, also known as microminerals, make up one of the two major groups of essential minerals needed by the body. While equally important, trace minerals are required in smaller amounts than macrominerals. Trace minerals include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum. Non-essential trace minerals include silica, boron, vanadium, and others.

Thiamin

Thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is an essential water-soluble B vitamin with an important role in several enzymatic functions, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, and fatty acids. A strong role in cellular energy and metabolism and the synthesis of neurotransmitters highlight thiamin’s role in healthy brain function.*

Triglyceride

Triglycerides are fat; they are triesters consisting of a glycerol bound to three fatty acid molecules and the form in which fatty acids are found in the diet and in dietary sources (e.g., fish). Fish oil in the triglyceride form offers the most superior bioavailability to support healthy levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3s in the body.*


U

Ubiquinol

Kaneka ubiquinol® is the most bioavailable, bioactive form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant found in every cell of the human body, including the skin. Concentrated in mitochondria (the energy powerhouses of cells), CoQ10 is required for cellular energy production and rejuvenation. Ubiquinol is clinically shown to increase CoQ10 levels (which decline with age) and reduce oxidative stress. CoQ10 supports skin elasticity and smoothness, while combating wrinkles.* Q+®, Kaneka Ubiquinol® and the quality seal® are registered trademarks of Kaneka Corp.

Ubiquinone

Topical ubiquinone is a form of coenzyme Q10, a natural antioxidant produced by the body. All antioxidants protect skin against free radicals, but CoQ10 also protects against lipid peroxidation, a process by which free radicals stress skin cell membranes. To top it off, CoQ10 can also regenerate other antioxidants.


V

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables, such as citrus fruits (e.g., oranges, lemons, grapefruit), but also berries, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower). Unlike most animals, humans are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so we must consume it daily. Vitamin C is a well-known antioxidant and is required by the body to synthesize collagen.* Ascorbic acid is a highly-absorbed, water-soluble form of vitamin C. A potent antioxidant vital for immune defense actions via innate and adaptive immunity, vitamin C helps buffer these systems from oxidative damage.* Vitamin C also supports normal development and function of immune cells, the inflammatory response, and healing.*

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient and hormone, naturally produced by the skin when exposed to direct sunlight. Vitamin D is necessary for the regulation of minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorus, in the body. Consequently, it plays an integral role in maintaining healthy bones and muscles. Vitamin D is also important in promoting healthy immune function. Vitamin D receptors are found on immune cells, facilitating vitamin D’s immunomodulatory actions, helping to strengthen our natural defense mechanisms. Although sunlight provides natural vitamin D, many individuals of all ages, especially the elderly, do not get enough vitamin D from sunlight and their diet. Vitamin D is one of the most common nutrient gaps and deficiencies worldwide, and supplementation is of great benefit in these situations to achieve sufficiency (25(OH)D > 30 ng/mL). Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the most bioavailable and bioactive form of vitamin D to consume. Organic algal vitamin D3 is the purest and most sustainable plant-origin vitamin D3 source available.*

Vitamin A

Vitamin A includes a group of fat-soluble retinoids, including retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters. The two forms of vitamin A available in the human diet include preformed vitamin A (retinol and retinyl ester) and provitamin A carotenoids (with beta-carotene being by far the most important). The body converts these plant pigments into vitamin A for utilization in several essential physiologic processes. Vitamin A supports growth and specialization of nearly all cells in the body, regulates gene expression, and promotes a healthy inflammatory response in cells and tissues. Consequently, the nutritional sufficiency of this vitamin allows for support of immune and eye health, as well as reproduction and cellular communication.*

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is the collective name for a group of fat-soluble compounds, with alpha-tocopherol being the only form with the capacity to meet human requirements and the primary form in blood and tissue. This essential fat-soluble micronutrient acts as a lipid-soluble antioxidant combating the propagation of free radicals. Vitamin E also plays a supportive role in cell-mediated immunity and biosynthesis of collagen and elastin, working to aid in protecting lipid structures.*

Vitamin K1

Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is a naturally occurring fat-soluble micronutrient. Phylloquinone represents the main dietary form of vitamin K and is present in green leafy vegetables. Vitamin K1 plays a significant role in bone and heart health through coagulation processes essential for blood clotting, skeletal formation and normal calcification processes, and regulation of cellular functions.*

Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) is a fat-soluble micronutrient found mainly in animal-based and fermented foods. Vitamin K2 is an essential micronutrient that plays an important role in heart and bone health. Not only does vitamin K help direct calcium, but it also supports healthy calcium metabolism demonstrating its supportive role in vascular and bone health. The menaquinone-7 (MK-7) form of K2 has clinical evidence to support its bioavailability.*

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is an essential water-soluble B vitamin that supports over 100 enzymes required mainly for healthy protein metabolism. Vitamin B6 serves several physiologic functions especially acting as a potent antioxidant critical for cellular well-being. Not only working to produce cellular energy from food, but vitamin B6 also serves a neuroprotective role, necessary for nervous system function and synthesis of neurotransmitters and nucleic acids. The ability to regulate lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation demonstrate a role in immune function. Vitamin B6 also plays a critical role in supporting a healthy methylation cycle in the body by supporting folate metabolism and maintenance of normal homocysteine levels.*

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble B vitamin. Vitamin B12, especially in its bioactive methylcobalamin form, serves several functions in the body, including support of brain health, immune health, and cellular energy and metabolism. B12 aids in metabolism of amino acids that serve as the building blocks for antibodies that provide support to the immune system. B12 also plays an important role in DNA synthesis, synthesis of neurotransmitters, and action as a cofactor to important components of the methylation cycle.*


W

Water-soluble vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins easily dissolve in water and are readily absorbed into tissue for immediate use. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body and therefore needed daily in the diet to ensure necessary replenishment. Included in the water-soluble vitamin family are vitamin C and the B-complex group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folate, and vitamin B12).

Water/Aqua

Water is present in all aqueous-based topical formulations, such as lotions, creams, and many serums. As your skin needs water to stay hydrated, it helps moisturize the skin. Additionally, water is naturally occurring in many skin care ingredients—such as aloe, fruit extracts, and coconut oil—so water is often present in formulations based on that.


X


Y


Z

Zinc bisglycinate

Zinc is an essential trace mineral and underconsumed nutrient for many. Zinc bisglycinate chelate is a gentle, bioavailable form of zinc. Along with supporting host resistance and resilience, this antioxidant nutrient is critical for normal immune function and healing, our body’s inflammatory response, and the development and protection of immune cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems.*

Zeaxanthin

Zeaxanthin is a phytonutrient macular carotenoid. Dark leafy greens and marigold flowers are some of the richest sources. At clinically studied doses, zeaxanthin has the capacity to act as a longevity botanical to support functional health areas such as providing photoprotection from UV exposure effects on eye health, supporting optimal visual function (as it’s one of the few carotenoid found in the macula), and acting as an antioxidant to combat reactive radicals. Consistent intake of zeaxanthin aids in supporting visual function and protection.*

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Four targeted strains to beat bloating and support gut health*

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Ultra-hydrating formula that nourishes your skin barrier

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Optimized vitamin D3 with absorption technology for whole-body health*

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Go deep beyond the surface with cellular beauty+ and beauty & gut collagen+

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Daily must-have essential for brain, heart & overall health*

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Rich yet fast-absorbing formula that nourish your microbiome

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