Açai (Euterpe oleracea) has gained much attention as a possible superfood, due to the high antioxidant content of its berries. The açai berry is approximately an inch in diameter and is reddish-purple in color. It comes from the açai palm tree, which is native to Central and South America. Açai is rich in anthocyanins, a polyphenol antioxidant that is responsible for giving the berries their dark red-purple color. Consumption of high anthocyanin-containing foods have been linked to increased protection against oxidativeoxidation stress.*
Acerola Cherry Extract
Acerola cherry (Malpighia emarginata) is the fruit from a small shrub-like tree native to Central and South America. Acerola cherries are a well-known source of vitamin C, making it an antioxidant-rich food. Additionally, these fruits are rich in vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin.
Alfalfa grass (Medicago sativa), also known as Llucerne, is a perennial pasture legume that is native to Asia and is rich in micronutrients. Alfalfa is a good source of vitamins (particularly B vitamins) and minerals.
Amino acids are the components that help make up proteins. In turn, proteins are the primary building blocks needed to ultimately grow and maintain the body and all its many functions – from building and maintaining healthy muscles, nerves, skin, teeth, bones and much more, to helping generate energy to ensure that the body functions properly. Examples of amino acids are L-glutamine and glycine. There are 21 amino acids common to all life forms, of which nine are essential to humans, meaning we cannot synthesize them and must consume them.
An antioxidant is a compound that neutralizes or resolves inhibits oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that often produces free radicals, which can lead to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants like vitamins C and E can help combat these oxidative processes.*
AstaReal® is a premium, sustainable, and naturally-occurring form of astaxanthin derived from green algae. Astaxanthin is responsible for the pinkish to red-orange color in salmon, trout, lobster, shrimp, and other seafood. This carotenoid phytonutrient and potent antioxidant is clinically shown to protect skin cells and help preserve the collagen layer. It has photoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Astaxanthin is clinically shown to help reduce fine lines and age spots and supports skin hydration, elasticity and smoothness.* AstaReal® is a registered trademark of Fuji Chemical Industries Co., Ltd.
Astaxanthin is a naturally-occurring carotenoid found in certain algae. Astaxanthin is responsible for the pinkish to red-orange color in salmon, trout, lobster, shrimp, and other seafood. Astaxanthin is a unique phytonutrient and potent antioxidant is clinically shown to protect skin cells and help preserve the collagen layer. It has photoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Astaxanthin is clinically shown to help reduce fine lines and age spots and supports skin hydration, elasticity and smoothness.*
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a naturally occurring chemical molecule found in all living cells. ATP is the main energetic currency within cells and necessary for all cells to live and function. ATP is produced in the mitochondria of cells.
Algal vitamin D3
Algal vitamin D3 (for example, VegD3®) is the purest and most sustainable form of plant-origin vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in the world. Vitamin D3 is the body's preferred form of this essential fat-soluble micronutrient, as it is most effective at raising and maintaining vitamin D levels in the body daily to achieve lifelong sufficiency.*
High-quality avocado oil from the avocado fruit ( Persea americana) is typically organic and virgin. Avocado oil is rich in oleic acid, a healthy monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found concentrated in the brain and known to have anti-inflammatory properties and support metabolic health.*
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions for health. Healthy oils like flaxseed oil are concentrated in this omega-3 fat that is pro-metabolic health.*
Beet root (Beta vulgaris) is a common bulbous, sweet, root vegetable rich in carotenoids, vitamin C, and other antioxidants. Studies also suggest that nitrates naturally found in beet root may support healthy cardiovascular and cognitive function and may also help increase physical stamina.* Although it is suspected that beets may be native to regions near the Mediterranean, today beets can be found pretty much worldwide, with France and the United States being among the largest producers.
Beta-glucans are a type of fiber found in the cell walls of certain yeasts, bacteria, fungi, algae (like seaweed), along with other plants like oats, barley, wheat, rye, and mushrooms. Beta-glucans serve as a source of energy and structure in these various plant species. Wellmune® beta-glucan is a gluten-free plant fiber derived from the cell walls of baker's yeast. As unique immunomodulators, beta-glucans promote immune resilience and are thought to "train" the body's innate immune cells to mount future responses. Wellmune® beta-glucan is clinically proven to support healthy immune function and strengthen the immune system.*
Bifidobacterium lactis B420
Bifidobacterium lactis B420 is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to helping prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* In fact, studies on Bifidobacterium lactis B420 suggest that this probiotic strain may be beneficial in maintaining a healthy body weight.*
Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07
Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to helping prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* Specifically, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 has been studied regarding its potential benefits on immune function.*
Bifidobacterium lactis HN019
Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 is a specific probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium lactis, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to help prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 has been clinically studied to establish and support healthy flora in the gut and promote gastrointestinal health.*
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin and a member of the B vitamin family (vitamin B7, specifically). It is needed to convert certain nutrients into energy and plays an important role in maintaining healthy hair, skin, and nails.* Biotin also supports healthy glucose metabolism by stimulating glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells and by accelerating glucose metabolism in the liver.* Similarly, biotin can enhance muscle insulin sensitivity by increasing the uptake of glucose by muscle cells.*
Black currant (Ribes nigrum) is a woody shrub that produces dark, glossy, blackberries. It is native to the northern regions of Europe and Asia. The berries can be eaten raw but are usually either juiced or cooked and incorporated into various dishes, or used in jams, jellies, and syrups. The fruit and leaves of the plant have been used in traditional folk medicine for bolstering immune health.* Study of the constituents of black currant reveal that it is high in vitamin C and polyphenols, making it a rich antioxidant source.
Bovine collagen is collagen from a bovine (cow) source. [See collagen]
Carotenoids are a class of phytonutrients found in the cells of plants, algae, and bacteria, that have a range of color from bright yellow to deep red pigments. Carotenoids help these organisms absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis. When consumed by humans, carotenoids serve as important antioxidants, helping protect the body’s cells from free radical damage.*
Ceramosides® is a proprietary, highly concentrated, gluten-free phytoceramide extract from wheat (Triticum vulgare) that may be consumed as a dietary supplement or applied topically for improving skin hydration.* The unique process involved in making Ceramosides® concentrates the skin-friendly lipids, eliminating the gluten-containing proteins, resulting in a gluten-free phytoceramide extract. Ceramides are skin-critical lipids known to decrease with age. This unique beauty bioactive is essential for skin barrier structure, function and homeostasis. Ceramosides® have been clinically shown to reduce dryness and wrinkles, while significantly improving skin hydration, elasticity, and smoothness.* Ceramosides® is a registered trademark of E.P.I. France.
Chlorella is a type of single-celled green algae, rich in nutrients, including protein, B vitamins, iron, the antioxidant vitamin C, and essential fatty acids.
Cinnamon Bark Extract
Cinnamon is a well-known spice obtained from the tree bark of the several different species varieties from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon bark has been widely used as a spice in food and drink, and in fragrances. Cinnamon bark has also been widely used in traditional herbalism for its potential benefit in digestive and immune support.* Clinical studies also indicate cinnamon can help maintain healthy blood sugar levels.*
Cocoa powder is derived from cacao trees often from regions like South America and Africa. High-quality cocoa beans are roasted and ground to retain the highest nutritional value. This delicious and natural, plant-based source of chocolate comes in organic varieties.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a potent antioxidant found in every cell of the human body, even the skin. Concentrated in mitochondria (the energy powerhouses of cells), CoQ10 is required for cellular energy production and rejuvenation. The ubiquinol form of CoQ10 is clinically shown to have superior bioavailability and bioactivity than the ubiquinone form of CoQ10. Ubiquinol has been clinically shown to increase CoQ10 levels (which decline with age) and reduce oxidative stress. CoQ10 supports skin elasticity and smoothness, while combating wrinkles.*
Collagen is the primary structural protein in the extracellular space of the various connective tissues in the body, particularly tendons, ligaments, and skin or hides. The body’s ability to produce collagen can decrease with age, and the more stress placed on the body, the greater the potential for insufficient collagen to be available to meet demand. Consequently, getting collagen through a balanced diet can help the body regain what may have been lost.* Collagen is rich in amino acids, which are key in supporting healthy connective tissue, skin, hair, and nails, as well as maintaining healthy digestive function.*
Curcumin is a bright yellow bioactive compound found particularly in turmeric root (Curcuma longa). It is used in Asian and Indian cultures in foods, cosmetics, and herbal medicine preparations. Clinical studies on curcumin have revealed many potential health benefits, including the support of healthy cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and musculoskeletal functions.* Curcumin also serves as a potent antioxidant flavonoid that helps maintain the body's normal inflammatory response.*
Digestive enzymes are substances produced by the body to facilitate the digestion of food.* The enzymes are secreted by the body help to break down macronutrient food components such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.* Because of age or because of individual physiological differences or deficits, the body may not be able to produce adequate amounts of enzymes to support normal digestion.* Hence, supplementary digestive enzymes may be needed.*
Extra virgin olive oil
High-quality extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is typically organic and cold pressed from the olive fruit (Olea europaea), which is cultivated using sustainable methods and concentrated in oleic acid, the hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*
High-quality flaxseed oil is typically, organic, virgin, and cold pressed from seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.) and delivers a powerful source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions for health.*
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major calming brain chemical or neurotransmitter. Its primary role is to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.*
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome (ginger root) is widely used by many cultures as a spice and as an herbal remedy. Among its many possible health benefits, ginger has been used to promote healthy digestion and to support immune function.*
You won't find gluten in our products. Gluten is a complex mixture of proteins – glutenins and gliadins – present in cereal grains, particularly varieties and derivatives of wheat (e.g., durum, spelt, semolina, rye, barley, triticale, etc.). It is the substance responsible for giving dough its elastic texture. Consumption of gluten elicits autoimmune reactions in people with celiac disease.
You won't find GMOs in our products. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are living organisms whose genetic material has been artificially manipulated in a laboratory through genetic engineering. Such manipulations can include any combination of plant, animal, bacteria, and/or virus genes to produce organisms that do not occur in nature or that can be achieved through traditional crossbreeding methods.
The term “grass-fed” refers to animals--typically cattle--allowed to forage and graze for their own fresh food, as opposed to being grain-fed.
Green Tea Leaf Extract
Green tea leaf extract is a preparation of leaves from the tea plant Camellia sinensis. Green tea is rich in antioxidants called flavonoids and polyphenols. Consequently, many health benefits are associated with drinking green tea. Green tea extracts can increase natural energy expenditure and support fat oxidation.* The polyphenols in green tea also provide antioxidant support and liver-protective properties.*
Hyaluronic acid is a polysaccharide molecule, naturally present in the human body, and is one of the key components of connective tissue. High concentrations of hyaluronic acid are found in the eyes and the joints. Hyaluronic acid serves as a cushion or lubricant in the joints and other tissues.* It also helps to retain moisture in the skin.*
Inflammation, when acute, is a normal, localized physical process in which part of the body becomes temporarily reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.
Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) is a shrub-like tree, the fruit of which has been used in Asian cuisine and in Traditional Chinese Medicine for gastrointestinal and digestive support, and for calming and sleep-supportive properties.*
Kelp is the general term for a variety of large, brown algae (also commonly referred to as a type of seaweed) that is found worldwide in shallow, nutrient-rich saltwater. Depending on the particular type of kelp there can be slight differences in color, flavor, and nutrient profile. Kelp is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals such as vitamins A, B1, B2, C, D and E, zinc, iodine, magnesium, iron, potassium, copper and calcium.
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a beneficial bacterium. Well-researched, the NCFM strain has been shown in clinical trials to support various aspects of gastrointestinal health immune function.*
You'll find no or very low lectins in our products. Lectins are proteins naturally found in plants. The role of lectins is to protect the plant as it grows. Some foods that are relatively high in lectins include beans, peanuts, lentils, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, fruits, and wheat and other grains. Lectins typically do not have much nutritional value when consumed in foods. That said, some lectins may promote inflammatory responses in sensitive or susceptible individuals. As such, it is advised that susceptible individuals avoid or greatly reduce their intake of high-lectin foods and/or dietary supplements containing high-lectin foods.
L-glutamine is the most prevalent amino acid in the bloodstream. It is also found in high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. This is because cells in the gut rely on L-glutamine to regenerate and keep the intestinal lining healthy and robust.* L-glutamine also supports healthy immune function and assists in healing for muscle cell repair and maintenance.*
Magnesium bisglycinate is a chelate form of magnesium that binds the mineral to the amino acid glycine. Magnesium bisglycinate has demonstrated greater absorption of magnesium than other specific forms of magnesium compounds.*
You won't find magnesium stearate in our products. Magnesium stearate is a white water-insoluble powder made of magnesium and the saturated fat, stearic acid. It is a common additive in processed foods, drugs, and dietary supplements. Magnesium stearate powder is very fine and slippery. Consequently, it serves as a good lubricant or “flow agent” in the manufacturing of dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals by helping the active ingredients “flow” through the machinery more easily during production. Although magnesium is part of the compound, magnesium stearate itself has minimal nutritional value.
Collagen from a marine source, typically from fish.
A microbiome is the combined genetic material of the microorganisms, (e.g., bacteria, bacteriophages, fungi, protozoa and viruses) in a given environment. For example, the human microbiome refers to the collective genetic material of all microorganisms living inside and on the human body. Different microbiomes (e.g., the gut microbiome, oral microbiome, skin microbiome, vaginal microbiome, etc.) contain unique types and diversity of microorganisms.
Mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) is an organelle, or small organ, within a living cell that is responsible for producing the energy needed to fuel the cell and its functions. Mitochondria are often referred to as the “powerhouses” of cells. Multiple mitochondria are often found in cells, particularly those in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Monk Fruit Extract
Monk fruit extract is a low-carb sweetener derived by clean, water extraction of 100% pure monk fruit, native to Asia (also known as luo han guo and “Buddha fruit”). Mogrosides, the unique compounds in monk fruit that deliver its natural sweetness, have antioxidant properties and are blood sugar-friendly.* This delicious and natural, plant-based sweetener comes in organic varieties.
Oleic acid is a specific type of healthy monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found concentrated in the brain and known to have anti-inflammatory properties and support metabolic health. Healthy oils like avocado and extra virgin olive oils are concentrated in oleic acid, a hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*
Omega-3 fatty acid
Omega-3 fatty acids are healthy unsaturated (specifically, polyunsaturated) fats that incorporate into cell membranes in organs throughout our body. These fats are particularly concentrated in the brain and eyes, and also have particular relevance for pre- and postnatal nutrition support. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential plant-derived omega-3 fatty acid (e.g., from flax, flaxseed oil), while eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are marine-sourced (e.g., fish, fish oils). Omega-3s are known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in the body and for their pro-cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and vision support qualities.*
Omega-9 fatty acid
Omega-9 fatty acids are healthy unsaturated (specifically, monounsaturated) fats that incorporate into cell membranes in organs throughout our body. These fats are particularly concentrated in the brain and known to have anti-inflammatory properties and support metabolic health. Oleic acid is a specific and the most famous type of omega-9 fatty acid. Healthy oils like avocado and extra virgin olive oils are particularly concentrated in oleic acid, a hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*
The term “pasture-raised” refers to animals that have spent at least some time outdoors on pasture, feeding on grass or allowed to forage.
PharmaGABA® is a naturally-sourced dietary supplement form of GABA, a neurotransmitter whose primary role is to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.* PharmaGABA® is produced via a unique fermentation process that utilizes Lactobacillus hilgardii, the same bacteria that is used to ferment cabbage in the preparation of the traditional Asian dish known as kimchi. PharmaGABA® is the a registered trademark for GABA of Pharma Foods International Co., Ltd.
Phytoceramides (AKA plant ceramides) are plant-derived, concentrated skin-critical lipids known to decrease with age. This unique beauty bioactive is essential for skin barrier structure, function and homeostasis. Phytoceramides have been clinically shown to reduce dryness and wrinkles, while significantly improving skin hydration, elasticity, and smoothness.*
A prebiotic compound is a substance, often in the form of a dietary fiber, that when consumed--either in food or as a dietary supplement--promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.*
A probiotic is a substance comprised of or containing one or more types of live microorganisms, that when consumed--either in food, beverage, dietary supplement--in adequate amounts helps maintain or restore beneficial bacteria to that environment and confer health support.*
Pomegranate whole fruit extract
Pomegranate whole fruit extract is a premium botanical extract from the pomegranate fruit, which is concentrated in antioxidants. Harvested from pomegranate orchards, this ingredient leverages the whole fruit synergy in a native pomegranate extract. Promoting cellular resilience and anti-inflammatory properties for healthy aging, this superfruit extract is clinically shown to enhance antioxidant responses and skin photoprotection from UV damage.*
pomma+® is a premium pomegranate whole fruit botanical extract concentrated in antioxidants. Harvested from California orchards, pomma+® leverages whole fruit synergy in a native pomegranate extract. Promoting cellular resilience and anti-inflammatory properties for healthy aging, this superfruit extract is clinically shown to enhance antioxidant responses and skin photoprotection from UV damage.* pomma+® is a registered trademark of Hawkins, Inc., parent company of STAUBER.
Quercetin is a plant-based powerhouse antioxidant and potent immunomodulator.* Quercetin is found in key fruits and vegetables, as well as Japanese pagoda tree flowers. The unique phytosome form is a liposomal format that enhances bioavailability.* In addition to supporting immune resilience through antioxidant actions, quercetin also has antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, promoting a balanced immune response.*
You won't find shellac in our products. Quite different from the varnish-like substance used in woodworking projects, this shellac is a resinous substance secreted by the insect, Laccifer lacca (lac), that is used in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries for its clear-coating and adhesive properties. Essentially it is what gives some medicinal tablets their shiny look.
Sirtuins (encoded by SIRT genes) are a family of proteins that play a role in aging by regulating cellular health. They are responsible for critical biological functions like DNA expression and aspects of aging. SIRT rely heavily on the presence of NAD+, derived from vitamin B3, niacin. Because SIRT activity is so dependent on NAD+, the two compounds are linked to cellular lifespan, metabolism, and even regulation of inflammatory processes. As NAD+ pools decline naturally during the aging process, SIRT function will decline as well. Consequently, maintaining optimal levels of NAD+ will also help maintain healthy SIRT activity and promote optimal mitochondrial function and may help support healthy aging.*
Sulforaphane glucosinolate (SGS) is a natural substance extracted from the seeds and sprouts of cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. SGS has "indirect" antioxidant properties, helping protect cells from free radical damage.* Typical antioxidants, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, work "directly" to neutralize free radicals and are usually effective soon after they are consumed.* By contrast, when SGS is ingested and begins to break down in the gut, it releases sulforaphane, thereby activating the body's natural detoxification and antioxidant enzymes and providing more indirect, yet broad support against free radicals and oxidative processes.*
A member of the same plant family as ginger, turmeric (Curcuma longa), is a flowering plant whose rhizome (turmeric root) is commonly used, particularly in Indian and Asian cultures, as a culinary spice. Turmeric is rich in curcumin, which has been used in Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese medicine, and other herbalist traditions for centuries for its health promoting properties. Modern research has shown curcumin to be a potent antioxidant with many potential health benefits.*
Kaneka ubiquinol® is the most bioavailable, bioactive form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant found in every cell of the human body, including the skin. Concentrated in mitochondria (the energy powerhouses of cells), CoQ10 is required for cellular energy production and rejuvenation. Ubiquinol is clinically shown to increase CoQ10 levels (which decline with age) and reduce oxidative stress. CoQ10 supports skin elasticity and smoothness, while combating wrinkles.* Q+®, Kaneka Ubiquinol® and the quality seal® are registered trademarks of Kaneka Corp.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables, such as citrus fruits (e.g., oranges, lemons, grapefruit), but also berries, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower). Unlike most animals, humans are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so we must consume it daily. Vitamin C is a well-known antioxidant and is required by the body to synthesize collagen.* Ascorbic acid is a highly-absorbed, water-soluble form of vitamin C. A potent antioxidant vital for immune defense actions via innate and adaptive immunity, vitamin C helps buffer these systems from oxidative damage.* Vitamin C also supports normal development and function of immune cells, the inflammatory response, and healing.*
Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient and hormone, naturally produced by the skin when exposed to direct sunlight. Vitamin D is necessary for the regulation of minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorus, in the body. Consequently, it plays an integral role in maintaining healthy bones and muscles. Vitamin D is also important in promoting healthy immune function. Vitamin D receptors are found on immune cells, facilitating vitamin D’s immunomodulatory actions, helping to strengthen our natural defense mechanisms. Although sunlight provides natural vitamin D, many individuals of all ages, especially the elderly, do not get enough vitamin D from sunlight and their diet. Vitamin D is one of the most common nutrient gaps and deficiencies worldwide, and supplementation is of great benefit in these situations to achieve sufficiency (25(OH)D > 30 ng/mL). Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the most bioavailable and bioactive form of vitamin D to consume. Organic algal vitamin D3 is the purest and most sustainable plant-origin vitamin D3 source available.*
Zinc is an essential trace mineral and underconsumed nutrient for many. Zinc bisglycinate chelate is a gentle, bioavailable form of zinc. Along with supporting host resistance and resilience, this antioxidant nutrient is critical for normal immune function and healing, our body’s inflammatory response, and the development and protection of immune cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems.*