Açai (Euterpe oleracea) has gained much attention as a possible superfood, due to the high antioxidant content of its berries. The açai berry is approximately an inch in diameter and is reddish-purple in color. It comes from the açai palm tree, which is native to Central and South America. Açai is rich in anthocyanins, a polyphenol antioxidant that is responsible for giving the berries their dark red-purple color. Consumption of high anthocyanin-containing foods have been linked to increased protection against oxidativeoxidation stress.*
Acerola Cherry Extract
Acerola cherry, Malpighia glabra L., is the fruit from a small-shrub tree native to Central and South America. These fruits are especially rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin. As a plant-derived source of vitamin C, acerola provides this essential water-soluble vitamin that is a powerful neutralizer of free radicals, and a required cofactor for many redox reactions. In addition to promoting total antioxidant capacity in the body, vitamin C supports our skin barrier, liver function, and kidney function, while also restoring other antioxidants, including glutathione.*
Alfalfa grass (Medicago sativa), also known as Llucerne, is a perennial pasture legume that is native to Asia and is rich in micronutrients. Alfalfa is a good source of vitamins (particularly B vitamins) and minerals.
Amino acids are the components that help make up proteins. In turn, proteins are the primary building blocks needed to ultimately grow and maintain the body and all its many functions – from building and maintaining healthy muscles, nerves, skin, teeth, bones and much more, to helping generate energy to ensure that the body functions properly. Examples of amino acids are L-glutamine and glycine. There are 21 amino acids common to all life forms, of which nine are essential to humans, meaning we cannot synthesize them and must consume them.
Antioxidants are unique compounds (e.g., nutrients, phytonutrients, and other bioactives) that inhibit, neutralize, or resolve oxidation. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that often produces free radicals, which can lead to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. Antioxidants have a leading and critical role in our body protecting cellular structures against oxidative stress and supporting a healthy redox status in the body. Antioxidants like glutathione, NAC, vitamins C and E, and selenium, as well as botanical bioactives (resveratrol, milk thistle, turmeric root, sulforaphane glucosinolate, etc.) can help combat these oxidative processes.*
AstaReal® is a premium, sustainable, and naturally occurring form of astaxanthin derived from H. pluvialis algae extract. This unique red phytonutrient pigment (xanthophyll carotenoid) has potent antioxidant properties and is shown to have whole-body health benefits, especially supporting eye and skin health. Known to work in the front of the eyes, AstaReal® is clinically shown to combat eye strain, eye fatigue, and oxidative stress in the eyes while promoting ocular blood flow, dynamic focus, depth perception, sharp vision, antioxidant density in the eyes, and visual performance. AstaReal® is also clinically shown to help reduce fine lines and age spots and support skin hydration, elasticity, and smoothness.*
Astaxanthin is a unique red phytonutrient pigment (xanthophyll carotenoid) with potent antioxidant properties. Astaxanthin is responsible for the pinkish to red-orange color in salmon, trout, lobster, shrimp, and other seafood (who receive their astaxanthin context by consuming specific types of algae). With its photoprotective and antioxidant properties, astaxanthin has been shown to have whole-body health benefits, especially supporting eye and skin health. Known to work in the front of the eyes, astaxanthin (as AstaReal®H. pluvialis algae extract) is clinically shown to combat eye strain, eye fatigue, and oxidative stress in the eyes, while promoting ocular blood flow, dynamic focus, depth perception, sharp vision, and visual performance. Astaxanthin is also clinically shown to help reduce fine lines and age spots and supports skin hydration, elasticity and smoothness.*
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a naturally occurring chemical molecule found in all living cells. ATP is the main energetic currency within cells and necessary for all cells to live and function. ATP is produced in the mitochondria of cells.
Algal vitamin D3
Algal vitamin D3 (for example, VegD3®) is the purest and most sustainable form of plant-origin vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) in the world. Vitamin D3 is the body's preferred form of this essential fat-soluble micronutrient, as it is most effective at raising and maintaining vitamin D levels in the body daily to achieve lifelong sufficiency.*
High-quality avocado oil from the avocado fruit ( Persea americana) is typically organic and virgin. Avocado oil is rich in oleic acid, a healthy monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found concentrated in the brain and known to support metabolic health.*
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid known for its antioxidant actions for health. Plant sources of ALA include, but are not limited to, flaxseeds, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, and their oils. Healthy oils like flaxseed oil are particularly concentrated in this omega-3 fat that is pro-metabolic health. ALA is poorly converted in the body to EPA and DHA.*
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice
Topical aloe barbadensis leaf juice is a natural humectant, this hydrating botanical comes with several skin care benefits thanks to over 75 different active compounds, including vitamins, minerals, sugars, enzymes, and amino acids. It helps fade dark spots, provides antioxidant benefits, and keeps skin supple. Our aloe is decolorized and certified organic.
Avena sativa (Oat) Kernel Oil
Topical oat extracts are popular additions for sensitive-skin formulas, as they have highly soothing actions. Oat oil is derived from the stems and leaves of the Avena sativa plant, which is known for its highly nutritious seeds. It’s high in linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid that helps regulate and promote healthy functioning of the skin barrier. Studies also suggest that oat oil has been known to boost ceramide levels in the skin, which help to keep skin cells together.
Anchovy oil is a premium type of fish oil that provides a potent amount of marine omega-3s EPA and DHA. The triglyceride form is the native fatty acid form (from the fish) that's most bioavailable to us. Pure anchovy oil comes from 100% sustainably sourced, wild-caught, cold-water Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). The South Pacific is the richest ocean source of anchovies.
Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a water-soluble form of vitamin C. Ascorbic acid is naturally found in many fruits and vegetables, such as citrus fruits (e.g., oranges, lemons, grapefruit), but also berries, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower). Unlike most animals, humans are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so we must consume it daily. Daily vitamin C intake promotes overall well-being via its antioxidant cellular health actions in the body. In addition to being a well-known antioxidant, vitamin C is required by the body to synthesize collagen and support iron absorption. A potent antioxidant vital for immune defense actions via innate and adaptive immunity, vitamin C helps buffer these systems from oxidative stress. Vitamin C also supports beauty, heart, and brain health.*
Actoprotectors are a unique subclass of adaptogens known for their actoprotective properties that modulate key brain neurotransmitters to promote stress resilience, mind-body energy, and cognitive efficiency. Panax ginseng is one example of a plant-origin actoprotector scientifically shown to demonstrate adaptogenic advantages, supporting mental and physical performance.*
Adaptogens are plant extracts with intrinsic properties and abilities to promote stress resilience (i.e., adaptation to stressors), bolster mental and physical performance, and balance the mind and body. Ginseng, ashwagandha, rhodiola, licorice, and various mushroom species are commonly known adaptogens, to name a few.*
Acumin™, is a novel full-spectrum turmeric root extract that features the complete matrix of native compounds in Curcuma longa including polyphenol phytonutrients (at least 45% curcuminoids) that are sandwiched between polar constituents (dietary fiber, polysaccharides, turmerin protein) and nonpolar parts (turmerone essential oil). This optimized and cutting-edge delivery system, known as polar-nonpolar-sandwich (PNS) technology, allows the bioactive compounds native to turmeric root to be protected inside the matrix, with the synergy and stability of polar and nonpolar layers. Acumin™ has been clinically shown to be up to 10 times more bioavailable than other common forms of turmeric (volatile oil, liposomal, 95% curcumin) by more effectively raising curcuminoid levels in the body (i.e., improving curcuminoid status), so the powerful plant bioactives can get busy supporting our joints, muscles, and whole-body health.*
Beet root (Beta vulgaris) is a common bulbous, sweet, root vegetable rich in carotenoids, vitamin C, and other antioxidants. Studies also suggest that nitrates naturally found in beet root may support healthy cardiovascular and cognitive function and may also help increase physical stamina.* Although it is suspected that beets may be native to regions near the Mediterranean, today beets can be found pretty much worldwide, with France and the United States being among the largest producers.
Beta-glucans are a type of fiber found in the cell walls of certain yeasts, bacteria, fungi, algae (like seaweed), along with other plants like oats, barley, wheat, rye, and mushrooms. Beta-glucans serve as a source of energy and structure in these various plant species. Wellmune® beta-glucan is a gluten-free plant fiber derived from the cell walls of baker's yeast. As unique immunomodulators, beta-glucans promote immune resilience and are thought to "train" the body's innate immune cells to mount future responses. Wellmune® beta-glucan is clinically proven to support healthy immune function and strengthen the immune system.*
Bifidobacterium lactis B420
Bifidobacterium lactis B420 is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to helping prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* In fact, studies on Bifidobacterium lactis B420 suggest that this probiotic strain may be beneficial in maintaining a healthy body weight.*
Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07
Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 is a specific strain of the Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to helping prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* Specifically, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 has been studied regarding its potential benefits on immune function.*
Bifidobacterium lactis HN019
Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 is a specific probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium lactis, a beneficial bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals.* Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to help prevent overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system.* Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 has been clinically studied to establish and support healthy flora in the gut and promote gastrointestinal health.*
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin and a member of the B vitamin family (vitamin B7, specifically). It is needed to convert certain nutrients into energy and plays an important role in maintaining healthy hair, skin, and nails.* Biotin also supports healthy glucose metabolism by stimulating glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells and by accelerating glucose metabolism in the liver.* Similarly, biotin can enhance muscle insulin sensitivity by increasing the uptake of glucose by muscle cells.*
Black currant (Ribes nigrum) is a woody shrub that produces dark, glossy, blackberries. It is native to the northern regions of Europe and Asia. The berries can be eaten raw but are usually either juiced or cooked and incorporated into various dishes, or used in jams, jellies, and syrups. The fruit and leaves of the plant have been used in traditional folk medicine for bolstering immune health.* Study of the constituents of black currant reveal that it is high in vitamin C and polyphenols, making it a rich antioxidant source.
Bovine collagen is collagen from a bovine (cow) source. [See collagen]
A B complex is combination of B vitamins from the family of essential B vitamins, including thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), vitamin B6, biotin (vitamin B7), folate (vitamin B9), and vitamin B12. This powerhouse array of water-soluble vitamins serves a wide range of functions in the body including delivering cellular energy and supporting a healthy metabolism. Specialized and targeted groups of B vitamins, such as riboflavin (B2), vitamin B6, folate (5-MTHF), and vitamin B12 are key enzyme cofactors serving essential roles in methyl group metabolism. When provided in their most bioavailable and bioactive forms, they support a healthy methylation cycle and an array of functions in the body, including support for our cardiovascular, neurological, and detoxification systems.*
Botanicals are the whole plant or plant part-derived bioactives that at sufficient doses aid in supporting cellular resilience and promoting graceful aging and longevity. Botanical bioactives are also sometimes referred to as herbal compounds or phytonutrients/phytochemicals. By definition, bioactives have effects on living organisms, us! When in combination with micronutrients, botanicals provide synergistic support to enhance health-supporting functions and efficacy.*
Boron is a trace element. Boron has potential beneficial effects on functional areas of health such as calcium metabolism, bone formation, brain health, energy metabolism, and function of steroid hormones.*
Black Pepper Fruit Extract
Black pepper fruit extract (Piper nigrum) is an ancient spice and a source of piperine, a famous polyphenolic phytonutrient bioactive with clinically shown actions as a targeted botanical enhancer of other compounds (e.g. turmeric and resveratrol). Besides its complementary action of enhancing other botanicals and nutrients, black pepper fruit also has antioxidant properties.*
Butyrospermum parkii (Shea) Butter
Topical shea butter is made from the fat extracted from the nuts of the shea tree, a plant native to West Africa. Rich in triglycerides, fatty acids, and vitamins, shea butter is an excellent emollient and can help skin reduce moisture loss. It also gives this hand cream its decadent, soft texture.
Betaine is a methyl derivative of the amino acid glycine. Betaine is a naturally occurring compound found widely in plants, animals, and other choline-containing compounds. Betaine is critical for lipid and energy metabolism, as well as osmoregulation. Betaine, in its bioactive form (trimethylglycine), has major physiologic role as a methyl donor in methylation processes in the body. With particularly high activity in the liver and kidneys, betaine ensures homocysteine’s conversion to methionine. High-potency betaine has been clinically shown to support homocysteine reduction and methionine regeneration, ultimately driving methylation function and health.*
Carotenoids are a unique class of powerful phytonutrient pigments (range of colors from bright yellow to deep red) that are found in a variety of plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Carotenoids help these organisms absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis. Carotenoids (over 600 found in nature) are classified into different groups: carotenes (e.g. beta-carotene and lycopene), xanthophylls (e.g. lutein, zeaxanthin, and astaxanthin), and a unique carotenoid category known as apocarotenoids that includes saffron flower bioactives crocin and crocetin. When consumed by humans, these carotenoids act as potent antioxidants providing phytonutrient support for immune, brain, heart, eye, and whole-body health. Humans do not have the physiological machinery to synthesize carotenoids on our own. That is why it’s so important that we consume them from a nutrient-dense diet and quality supplement regimen daily to reap their many benefits!*
Ceramosides® is a proprietary, highly concentrated, gluten-free phytoceramide extract from wheat (Triticum vulgare) that may be consumed as a dietary supplement or applied topically for improving skin hydration.* The unique process involved in making Ceramosides® concentrates the skin-friendly lipids, eliminating the gluten-containing proteins, resulting in a gluten-free phytoceramide extract. Ceramides are skin-critical lipids known to decrease with age. This unique beauty bioactive is essential for skin barrier structure, function and homeostasis. Ceramosides® have been clinically shown to reduce dryness and wrinkles, while significantly improving skin hydration, elasticity, and smoothness.* Ceramosides® is a registered trademark of E.P.I. France.
Chlorella is a type of single-celled green algae, rich in nutrients, including protein, B vitamins, iron, the antioxidant vitamin C, and essential fatty acids.
Cinnamon Bark Extract
Cinnamon is a well-known spice obtained from the tree bark of the several different species varieties from the genus Cinnamomum. Cinnamon bark has been widely used as a spice in food and drink, and in fragrances. Cinnamon bark has also been widely used in traditional herbalism for its potential benefit in digestive and immune support.* Clinical studies also indicate cinnamon can help maintain healthy blood sugar levels.*
Cocoa powder is derived from cacao trees often from regions like South America and Africa. High-quality cocoa beans are roasted and ground to retain the highest nutritional value. This delicious and natural, plant-based source of chocolate comes in organic varieties.
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a potent antioxidant found in every cell of the human body, even the skin. Concentrated in mitochondria (the energy powerhouses of cells), CoQ10 is required for cellular energy production and rejuvenation. The ubiquinol form of CoQ10 is clinically shown to have superior bioavailability and bioactivity than the ubiquinone form of CoQ10. Ubiquinol has been clinically shown to increase CoQ10 levels (which decline with age) and reduce oxidative stress. CoQ10 supports skin elasticity and smoothness, while combating wrinkles.*
Collagen is the primary structural protein in the extracellular space of the various connective tissues in the body, particularly tendons, ligaments, and skin or hides. The body’s ability to produce collagen can decrease with age, and the more stress placed on the body, the greater the potential for insufficient collagen to be available to meet demand. Consequently, getting collagen through a balanced diet can help the body regain what may have been lost.* Collagen is rich in amino acids, which are key in supporting healthy connective tissue, skin, hair, and nails, as well as maintaining healthy digestive function.*
Curcumin is a bright yellow bioactive compound found particularly in turmeric root (Curcuma longa). It is used in Asian and Indian cultures in foods, cosmetics, and herbal medicine preparations. Clinical studies on curcumin have revealed many potential health benefits, including the support of healthy cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and musculoskeletal functions.* Curcumin also serves as a potent antioxidant flavonoid that helps maintain the body's normal inflammatory response.*
Chelation is a process of the bonding of ions and organic compounds (e.g., amino acids) to metal ions. Mineral amino acid chelates for example have been scientifically shown to allow for a more absorbable and gentle form that simultaneously elevates bioavailability in the body without compromising absorption of other nutrients. The gentleness of these forms of minerals is largely due to chelated minerals being absorbed intact, while then breaking apart in the intestinal cell for transport throughout the body.*
Calcium is a macromineral and the most abundant mineral in the human body. Calcium plays a major structural role in bone and teeth. Calcium functions throughout the body support its role in many areas, including bone, joint, muscle, nerve, and heart health. Calcium in the circulatory system modulates vessel contraction and dilation, and muscle function. Calcium sufficiency in the body is essential for bone health, growth, nerve functioning, and cellular signaling throughout the body, making it an important nutritional focus area.*
Copper is an essential micromineral. Copper acts as a cofactor for several enzymes important for energy production, neurotransmission, iron metabolism, and connective tissue maturation. Copper also supports the function of macrophages and enhances natural killer cell activity to support immune health. Copper enzymes also catalyze reactions necessary for brain and nervous system function.*
Chromium is a micromineral that plays a role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Most of chromium's action in the body is through its influence on modulating insulin action. Chromium's action and function and implication for cardiometabolic health and cellular energy and metabolism.*
Caprylyl caprylate/caprate is a natural emollient derived from coconut oil. Emollients are used in topical formulas to keep a formula smooth and easy to apply, as well as hydrate the skin.
Caprylic/capric triglyceride is a skin conditioning agent when used in topical formulas. It is made from coconut oil and glycerin, and helps create a barrier on the skin to combat moisture loss.
Topical cetearyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol derived from plant oils. It's made of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol, two fatty alcohols also used in skin care. It has several functions in skin care: Cetearyl alcohol helps ingredients stay mixed, thanks to its emulsifying properties. This is key for keeping the formula stable and effective. It can also help thicken ingredients and make formulas easier to apply.
Topical cetearyl olivate is an ester that comes from cetearyl alcohol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It is used as a skin care emulsifier.
Citrullus lanatus (Watermelon) Fruit Extract
Topical Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract is a natural topical ingredient created from watermelons. It is part of a natural antioxidant complex found in some of our topical formulations. Together, the Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract create a complex that delivers a wide range of skin-supporting nutrients and benefits like citrulline and polysaccharides for water retention, vitamin B5 to smooth skin, and trisaccharides to enhance epidermal barrier function.
Chlorella vulgaris Extract
Topical Chlorella vulgaris extract is a prebiotic from a unique microalgae technology that has a broad-spectrum effect. In in vitro studies, this extract has been shown to promote S. epidermis (the main beneficial skin microbiome species) and balance detrimental species like M. furfur and S. aureus. Thanks to this ability to nurture a healthy skin biome, it’s been shown to have a calming effect on the skin as it confers support via microbiome balance.
Topical citric acid is a weak alpha hydroxy acid used in formulas to adjust the pH of the formula so it is more acidic, like the skin’s natural acidity.
Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Oil
Coconut oil is a popular body care ingredient that gives our lotion a lighter slip and consistency—while maintaining ample hydration. Research shows coconut oil can help promote moisture levels in the skin (it has an occlusive effect, meaning it seals in hydration), as well as support skin barrier function.
Citrus bioflavonoids are found in many of the same fruits rich in vitamin C. These unique phytochemicals complement vitamin C actions and buffer this essential micronutrient from oxidizers in the body. Citrus bioflavonoids not only act as vitamin C phytonutrient accessories, but also deliver unique benefits of their own through systemic antioxidant support. The versatile set of citrus bioflavonoids found in our citrus bioflavonoid complex include lemon (Citrus limon), sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), key lime (Citrus aurantifolia), mandarin orange (Citrus reticulate) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). These citrus-derived ingredients in our complex offer the broadest spectrum of citrus bioflavonoid profile available from 100% whole citrus fruit sources.*
Citicoline is a powerhouse brain nutrient. As a building block for compounds vital to brain health, citicoline is critical for neurotransmitter production (especially acetylcholine) and neuronal health, signaling, and function across the lifespan. Cognizin® citicoline has been clinically shown to benefit attentional focus, learning, memory, and cognitive performance. Citicoline has also been shown to increase mental ATP energy, brain cell membrane formation (via phospholipid formation), mental processing speed, and the ability to tune out distractions.*
Cognizin® citicoline is the hero of neuronutrients. As a building block for compounds vital to brain health, citicoline is critical for neurotransmitter production (especially acetylcholine) and neuronal health, signaling, and function across the lifespan. Cognizin® citicoline has been clinically shown to benefit attentional focus, learning, memory, and cognitive performance. Citicoline has also been shown to increase mental ATP energy, brain cell membrane formation (via phospholipid formation), mental processing speed, and the ability to tune out distractions.*
Coffeeberry® organic plant-origin instant-release caffeine and polyphenols are sustainably sourced and water extracted from the coffee plant species, Coffea arabica. This whole coffee fruit (i.e., coffee “berry” or “cherry”) is handpicked on multi-generational heritage farms in India. Plant waste is limited by using all parts of the coffee plant (skin, pulp, and beans). These sustainable and eco-friendly processes preserve the whole fruit and native polyphenols within the coffee cherry. Along with antioxidant benefits from polyphenols, this immediate-release caffeine promotes focused mental energy, alertness, and productivity.*
Coffee berry (coffee cherry)
Coffee berry, aka coffee cherry, refers to the whole coffee fruit (skin, pulp, and beans). A large number of phenolic and other bioactive compounds are naturally present in whole coffee cherries, including chlorogenic acids, phenolic acids, and organic acids. A specific type of coffee berry known as Coffeeberry® delivers native, plant-origin caffeine and polyphenols from whole coffee cherries (not just coffee beans) in an eco-friendly process. Along with antioxidant benefits from polyphenols, caffeine promotes focused mental energy, alertness, and productivity.*
The caffeine “crash” sensation or phenomenon can occur in some individuals after a few hours following consumption of instant-release caffeine (and ensuing rapid absorption), which results in increased caffeine levels in the blood, followed by a quick drop or steep decline. Most coffee, supplements, and energy drinks deliver instant-release caffeine. Caffeine “crashes” can produce a drop in energy levels and mood, as well as jitteriness. There are many ways to avoid the crash, including sustained-release caffeine with absorption technology that extends the release of caffeine over several more hours, balancing the pharmacokinetic profile overall, for improved experience and nootropic benefits.*
CQR-300® is a premium veld grape (Cissus quadrangularis) extract sourced from India. CQR-300® veld grape offers robust clinical evidence for its actions of combating oxidative stress, supporting maintenance of energy balance, including appetite hormones (leptin, adiponectin, and serotonin), promoting cardiometabolic health (blood sugar, blood pressure, and lipids), and supporting healthy weight, waist circumference, and body composition.*
Capsaicinoids, are naturally occuring phytonutrients and the main bioactive compounds in cayenne pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum). Along with antioxidant actions, capsaicinoids from red chili pepper activate thermogenic calorie burn, increase metabolism and fat oxidation, and promote healthy body composition. Capsimax® cayenne pepper fruit extract (with 4% capsaicinoids) provides optimized delivery clinically shown to ensure efficacious doses of capsaicinoids while also being gentle on the stomach.*
Capsimax® is a premium cayenne pepper fruit extract (Capsicum annuum) with optimized delivery technology clinically shown to ensure efficacious doses of capsaicinoids while also being gentle on the stomach. Capsimax® is also clinically shown to increase metabolism and fat oxidation, curb cravings and calorie intake, and promote healthy body composition via beneficial effects on body fat and waist-to-hip ratio.*
Cayenne pepper fruit
Cayenne pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum) extract comes from red chili peppers. Along with antioxidant actions, the capsaicinoid bioactive compounds activate thermogenic calorie burn pathways. Cayenne pepper extract is clinically shown to increase metabolism and fat oxidation, curb cravings and calorie intake, and promote healthy body composition via beneficial effects on body fat and waist-to-hip ratio. Capsimax® is a premium cayenne pepper fruit extract with optimized delivery technology clinically shown to ensure efficacious doses of capsaicinoids while also being gentle on the stomach.*
Digestive enzymes are substances produced by the body to facilitate the digestion of food.* The enzymes are secreted by the body help to break down macronutrient food components such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.* Because of age or because of individual physiological differences or deficits, the body may not be able to produce adequate amounts of enzymes to support normal digestion.* Hence, supplementary digestive enzymes may be needed.*
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, made up of a 22-carbon chain and six double bonds. DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) come mainly from fish and fish oil, so are often referred to as marine omega-3s. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but in very limited amounts, therefore adequate dietary intake and supplementation are of great benefit to achieve sufficiency. EPA and DHA support overall wellness, including heart, brain, joint, eye and perinatal health. DHA is particularly concentrated in the central nervous system (brain, eyes) and is important for mothers to consume during pregnancy and lactation to support baby’s development.*
Detoxification is a complex and whole-body process, relying on multiple organs and cellular pathways. The key organs that support detoxification pathways include the liver, kidneys, and skin, as well as respiratory, lymphatic, and digestive systems. These organs and physiological systems work constantly to flush out toxins and byproducts of the body’s everyday processes. Not only are detoxification pathways important to buffer us against environmental factors, toxins, and stressors, but also for helping us achieve homeostatic antioxidant-versus-oxidant balance (aka redox balance) in the body daily. Our bodies have built-in systems to support everyday filtering and removal of toxins, but targeted nutrients, botanicals, and bioactives offer support for these processes, to support overall health and well-being.*
Extra virgin olive oil
High-quality extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is typically organic and cold pressed from the olive fruit (Olea europaea), which is cultivated using sustainable methods and concentrated in oleic acid, the hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*
A variety of topical compounds used to stabilize oil-in-water skin care formulas, ensuring a homogenous mixture of ingredients and smooth product.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an important long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid made up of a 20-carbon chain and five double bonds. EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) come mainly from fish and fish oil, so are often referred to as marine omega-3s. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is converted to EPA and DHA in the body, but in very limited amounts, therefore adequate dietary intake and supplementation are of great benefit to achieve sufficiency. EPA and DHA support overall wellness, including heart, brain, joint, eye, and perinatal health.*
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), is a unique plant compound found in green tea. This famous catechin is a phytonutrient known for its potent antioxidant properties. Green tea leaf extract (Camellia sinensis) increases resting energy expenditure (metabolism), promotes satiety, and inhibits fat storage at the cellular level. Green tea-derived EGCG and caffeine have clinically shown metabolic synergy.*
High-quality flaxseed oil is typically, organic, virgin, and cold pressed from seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.) and delivers a powerful source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an essential polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid known for its antioxidant properties for health.*
Fat-soluble vitamins include four essential vitamins: A, D, E, and K. In contrast to water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins can be dissolved by fats (and oils) and are stored in the body in the liver and fatty tissue. When absorbed, fat-soluble vitamins travel through the small intestine and are distributed through the body via the bloodstream.
Folate, also known as vitamin B9, is an essential water-soluble B vitamin. Folate serves a vital role in brain health, heart health, and cellular energy and metabolism. Methylfolate plays a critical function in the mediation and transfer of one-carbon units, which is also crucial for the metabolism of nucleic acids (think: DNA and RNA) and amino acids. Folate, as a vital component of the methylation cycle, supports homocysteine conversion and metabolism, feeding into the methionine cycle, and promoting overall normal healthy cellular function. Before serving as a coenzyme for one-carbon transfer, folate requires activation by being reduced to the 5-MTHF form, the form of circulating folate in the body for transport into peripheral tissues. In its bioactive form, folic acid is clinically shown to support healthy homocysteine and SAM-e levels to drive optimal methylation function in every cell of the body.*
Fish oil from oily fish (e.g., anchovies, sardines, mackerel, salmon, etc.) delivers a concentrated source of healthy, polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. Source, potency, form, purity, quality, sustainability, and transparency (e.g., of fish species and origin) are all important components of fish oils’ health promoting benefits. Daily intake of quality fish oil supports whole-body health and wellness conferred via healthful whole-body actions of EPA and DHA, which combat oxidative stress while also promoting a healthy inflammatory response.*
mindbodygreen’s fragrance is a combination of essential oils, natural extracts, and responsible synthetics that was formulated in compliance with the IFRA 49th Amendment and Prop 65—the most up-to-date international and domestic fragrance regulatory standards available. For more information on the individual ingredients, please reach out to mindbodygreen’s customer support.
The folate cycle is a critical component of one-carbon metabolism that drives methylation processes in the body. The cycle is essential for feeding the active form of folate (5-MTHF), one of the most important methyl donors, into the methionine cycle. Folic acid (from certain supplements and fortified foods) and folate (from dietary sources) require multiple steps of conversion, relying on proper functioning of enzymes to arrive at its fully active form. One of the most pivotal enzymes is MTHFR, which is a rate-limiting step for the conversion to fully active folate (5-MTHF), but many people have an MTHFR gene variant that impacts its conversion abilities to varying degrees. Bioactive folate can be provided as a targeted supplement to help overcome these differences. Bioactive B vitamins (riboflavin (B2), vitamin B6, and methylfolate) support the folate cycle. The folate cycle and the methionine cycle work together to drive methylation processes in the body.*
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major calming brain chemical or neurotransmitter. Its primary role is to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.*
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is an ancient spice from the same botanical family as turmeric (Zingiberaceae). This flowering plant's rhizome (ginger root) is widely used by many cultures as a spice and herbal remedy. Along with synergizing turmeric’s antioxidant actions, ginger has many health benefits, including properties to promote digestion and immune function. Full-spectrum ginger root extract (Ginactiv®) features the complete array of ginger root plant compounds, boasting diverse gingerols and shogaols (main polyphenol bioactive compounds present in ginger root) and delivers a unique absorption and biological advantage thanks to polar-nonpolar-sandwich (PNS) technology, with preclinical research demonstrating its high stability and antioxidant capacity of ginger for supporting overall health.*
You won't find gluten in our products. Gluten is a complex mixture of proteins – glutenins and gliadins – present in cereal grains, particularly varieties and derivatives of wheat (e.g., durum, spelt, semolina, rye, barley, triticale, etc.). It is the substance responsible for giving dough its elastic texture. Consumption of gluten elicits autoimmune reactions in people with celiac disease.
You won't find GMOs in our products. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are living organisms whose genetic material has been artificially manipulated in a laboratory through genetic engineering. Such manipulations can include any combination of plant, animal, bacteria, and/or virus genes to produce organisms that do not occur in nature or that can be achieved through traditional crossbreeding methods.
The term “grass-fed” refers to animals--typically cattle--allowed to forage and graze for their own fresh food, as opposed to being grain-fed.
Green Tea Leaf Extract
Green tea leaf extract is a carefully concentrated preparation of leaves from the tea plant Camellia sinensis. Green tea is rich in antioxidants called flavonoids and polyphenols. Among these antioxidants includes the famous catechin phytonutrient, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Many health benefits are associated with green tea through its antioxidant actions and liver-protective properties. Green tea leaf extract is also clinically shown to support healthy metabolism by increasing resting energy expenditure, promoting satiety, and inhibiting fat storage at the cellular level.*
Glutathione (i.e., L-glutathione) is a potent bioactive tripeptide antioxidant. Commonly known as the body’s “master antioxidant,” glutathione is present in every cell in the body to act in nutrient metabolism and regulation of cellular events.. It is the most abundant endogenous antioxidant and serves as a critical regulator of oxidative stress. Glutathione levels fluctuate during the day, and glutathione production decreases with age. On the front lines of whole-body detoxification – glutathione systematically scavenges and neutralizes free radicals, driving multi-organ detox pathways (liver, kidneys, lungs, gut), and cleaning up cellular debris and toxins. Glutathione supplementation enhances the glutathione content of essential tissues supporting health functions, including cellular longevity, detoxification, immune and brain support. Setria® glutathione is a premium, vegan, fermentation-derived glutathione that boasts clinically proven bioavailability and absorption to elevate glutathione storage and status in the body.*
Topical glycerin is a type of humectant—or an ingredient that attracts and holds water—that is often used in skin care products. Glycerin is actually a naturally occurring compound in the skin, and helps to hydrate and condition the barrier. For topical skin care formulas, the ingredient is derived from vegetable oils.
Topical glyceryl stearate is an emulsifier in skin care products.
Topical glyceryl caprylate is a glycerin-derived emulsifier typically used to stabilize oil-in-water skin care formulas.
Topical gluconolactone is used as a topical preservative system. In our formulas we use a natural, patented preservative system known as Geogard Ultra®. It is a synergistic blend of gluconolactone and sodium benzoate that not only has broad spectrum preservation efficacy, but can actually contribute to skin hydration. Most organic preservation acids are too weak on their own and require a co-preservative. In this case, gluconolactone acts as a booster for sodium benzoate by time-releasing gluconic acid so it can be more effective for longer periods of time. The blend is in compliance with ECOCERT/COSMOS, NATRUE and the Soil Association, organizations that have some of the highest standards in the EU.
Guarana seed extract
Guarana (Paullinia cupana) is a superfruit from a wild climbing plant that naturally contains a small amount (typically about 8% or more) of native caffeine plus other unique phytonutrients that fuel stimulatory and nootropic effects. Native caffeine and other active components elevate energy, endurance, and mood. Guarana has clinically shown, incremental benefits with ginseng to improve mental alertness and reaction time, as well as learning, task, and memory performance.*
Ginsenosides are the main phytochemical constituents of Panax ginseng. There are a number of various unique ginsenosides present in the ginseng plant species with a wide range of benefits including powerful antioxidant properties. These triterpene saponins are bioactive phytonutrients with scientific research support for promoting a healthy stress response, glucose metabolism, and enhanced cognitive performance.*
Ginactiv® is a novel full-spectrum ginger root extract that features the complete matrix of native compounds in Zingiber officinale including polyphenol phytonutrients (minimum 15% gingerols including a variety of gingerols and shogaols) that are sandwiched between polar constituents of ginger (dietary fiber, carbohydrates, protein), and nonpolar parts (ginger essential oils). This optimized and cutting-edge delivery system, known as polar-nonpolar-sandwich (PNS) technology, allows the bioactive compounds native to ginger to be protected inside the matrix, with the synergy and stability of polar and nonpolar layers. Preclinical research demonstrates Ginactiv® ginger root extract to have enhanced stability and antioxidant capacity to promote whole-body health benefits of the powerful ancient spice.*
Grains of paradise seed extract
Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta), is an ancient, edible spice from the ginger family. Concentrated in 6-paradol and gingerol bioactives, the premium ThermoGP™ grains of paradise extract is sourced from West Africa. This unique botanical aids increases in metabolic rate and calorie burn by activating thermogenic brain adipose tissue (BAT). Grains of paradise is clinically shown to enhance whole-body energy expenditure and body composition by reducing visceral fat.*
Hyaluronic acid is a polysaccharide molecule, naturally present in the human body, and is one of the key components of connective tissue. High concentrations of hyaluronic acid are found in the eyes and the joints. Hyaluronic acid serves as a cushion or lubricant in the joints and other tissues.* It also helps to retain moisture in the skin.*
Topical hydroxyethylcellulose is an emulsifier and thickening agent derived from cellulose, the main component of plant cell walls.
Homocysteine is a naturally occurring amino acid in the body. Homocysteine is not only an indicator of cardiovascular health but also a biomarker of methylation and the MTHFR enzyme function. With the help of specialized bioactive B vitamins such as vitamin B6, B12, and methylfolate (B9), that support homocysteine metabolism and conversion, homocysteine links the folate and methionine cycles that drive methylation processes in the body. Vitamin B6-dependent enzymes support the breakdown of homocysteine to cysteine, while bioactive folate, vitamin B12, and betaine support its conversion into methionine. Both pathways have massive implications for the synthesis of numerous proteins in our body, as well as methylation. The targeted support of the active forms of these B vitamins supports healthy homocysteine levels in the body.*
Inflammation, when acute, is a normal, localized physical process in which part of the body becomes temporarily reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.
Iron is an essential micromineral and vital for hundreds of proteins and enzymes. Iron plays a role in physiologic functions necessary for oxygen transport, cellular energy and metabolism, and DNA synthesis. As an essential component of myoglobin, oxygen providing protein, iron supports muscle and healthy connective tissue. Numerous enzymes are dependent on iron for DNA repair and replication. Iron also helps the brain's high respiratory needs as well as the production of multiple neurotransmitters. Irons regulation of differentiation and growth of epithelial tissues and modulation of inflammatory response also demonstrates its immune function capacity.*
Iodine is an essential micromineral. Iodine plays a critical role in producing thyroid hormones and thus directly supports thyroid function. Thyroid hormones play a pivotal role in whole-body well-being, as they play a role in protein synthesis, enzymatic activity, metabolic activity, body composition, cardiovascular function, mental well-being, and several other biochemical processes. A further function of iodine includes regulation during normal growth, development, and metabolism.*
Instant-release caffeine refers to a source of caffeine that delivers the phytonutrient in a way that supports its immediate, rapid release and actions in the body. Plant-origin instant-release caffeine from whole coffee fruit (Coffea arabica), for example, promotes focused mental energy, alertness, and productivity (within 30 minutes). Coffeeberry® plant-origin caffeine (Coffea arabica) delivers native caffeine and polyphenols from whole coffee cherries (aka coffee berries) in an eco-friendly process. Another example is plant-origin caffeine derived from green tea leaf extract (Camellia sinensis). In addition to its well-known energizing actions in the body, caffeine has powerful stimulatory effects on the central nervous system, increasing fat metabolism and inhibiting fat storage. When partnered with EGCG, caffeine is clinically shown to enhance energy utilization (calorie burn), thermogenic fat burn (lipolysis), and weight management.*
Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) is a shrub-like tree, the fruit of which has been used in Asian cuisine and in Traditional Chinese Medicine for gastrointestinal and digestive support, and for calming and sleep-supportive properties.*
Kelp is the general term for a variety of large, brown algae (also commonly referred to as a type of seaweed) that is found worldwide in shallow, nutrient-rich saltwater. Depending on the particular type of kelp there can be slight differences in color, flavor, and nutrient profile. Kelp is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals such as vitamins A, B1, B2, C, D and E, zinc, iodine, magnesium, iron, potassium, copper and calcium.
Kanna, the common botanical name for Sceletium tortuosum, is a potent nootropic and indigenous South African plant with millennia of historical use. Along with balancing key neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin) and brain waves, kanna is clinically shown to improve executive function and cognitive flexibility, which impacts everything from decision making and impulse control to multitasking. Research also demonstrates this botanical’s ability to enhance mental well-being and mood, by strengthening our resilience to stressful stimuli and supporting a sense of serenity. Zembrin® delivers ecologically responsible and sustainably sourced kanna from South Africa.*
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a beneficial bacterium. Well-researched, the NCFM strain has been shown in clinical trials to support various aspects of gastrointestinal health immune function.*
You'll find no or very low lectins in our products. Lectins are proteins naturally found in plants. The role of lectins is to protect the plant as it grows. Some foods that are relatively high in lectins include beans, peanuts, lentils, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, fruits, and wheat and other grains. Lectins typically do not have much nutritional value when consumed in foods. That said, some lectins may promote inflammatory responses in sensitive or susceptible individuals. As such, it is advised that susceptible individuals avoid or greatly reduce their intake of high-lectin foods and/or dietary supplements containing high-lectin foods.
L-glutamine is the most prevalent amino acid in the bloodstream. It is also found in high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. This is because cells in the gut rely on L-glutamine to regenerate and keep the intestinal lining healthy and robust.* L-glutamine also supports healthy immune function and assists in healing for muscle cell repair and maintenance.*
Lutein is a phytonutrient (xanthophyll) macular carotenoid found in high quantities in green leafy vegetables and marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta). Lutein is essential for the development of key layers of the retina (macula for example) and is the predominant carotenoid in human brain tissue. Lutein’s antioxidant capacity allows it to provide photoprotection from UV exposure effects on eye health, enhance the reduction of reactive radicals, and combat retinal oxidative stress. Lutein and zeaxanthin (as Lutemax® 2020) are clinically shown to improve MPOD, photostress recovery, visual performance, and macular health and longevity. Consistent and daily intake of lutein aids in supporting visual function and protection and essentiality of macular carotenoids in this “digital age”.*
Lycopene is a phytonutrient and powerful lipophilic antioxidant among carotenoids. Offering the pigment that gives red and pink fruit, tomato, for example, their characteristic color. Lycopene has a strong ability to aid cellular resilience through modulating signaling pathways and acting as a radical scavenger to combat oxidative stress, with clinical relevance for cardiometabolic function, healthy skin, and more.*
Lactobacillus ferment is a topical postbiotic. This new generation of active ingredients nurtures the skin microbiome and the skin itself by supplying it with peptides and short-chain fatty acids. Our special biotech postbiotic comes from Lactobacillus, the “educational” bacteria that teaches the skin to protect itself, encourages more vibrant appearance, and is appropriate for sensitive skin. It has been shown to help regulate inflammatory pathways and microcirculation, and activate the skin’s immune system.
Lens esculenta (Lentil) Fruit Extract
Topical Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract is a natural topical ingredient created from lentils. It is part of a natural antioxidant complex found in some of our topical formulations. Together, the Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract create a complex that delivers a wide range of skin-supporting nutrients and benefits like citrulline and polysaccharides for water retention, vitamin B5 to smooth skin, and trisaccharides to enhance epidermal barrier function.
Lemon oil is an essential oil from the citrus fruit, lemon. Organic lemon oil from U.S.-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon) can be used as a natural strategy to combat fishy aftertaste in fish oil supplements. Furthermore, the aromatic organic lemon oil delivers an additional antioxidant citrus punch.*
L-theanine is a powerful amino acid bioactive that promotes the balancing of calm and focused energy. This relaxed yet alert mental state is due to L-theanine’s neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. L-theanine is clinically shown to improve performance of demanding tasks and increase alpha brain wave activity, relaxing the mind (sans drowsiness). In tandem with caffeine, L-theanine enhances attention span and multitasking. The most clinically researched form of L-theanine is Suntheanine®, research demonstrates this active ingredient's ability to enhance concentration without ‘jitters’.*
Lutemax® 2020 delivers lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin isomers (complete macular carotenoid formula) sourced from premium marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta). Like “internal sunglasses”, these macular carotenoids have major antioxidant and light filtering abilities. Concentrated in the centermost part of the retina, these photoprotective antioxidants (as Lutemax® 2020) are clinically shown to improve MPOD, photostress recovery, visual performance, and macular health and longevity.*
Magnesium bisglycinate is a chelate form of magnesium that binds the mineral to the amino acid glycine. Magnesium bisglycinate has demonstrated greater absorption of magnesium than other specific forms of magnesium compounds.*
You won't find magnesium stearate in our products. Magnesium stearate is a white water-insoluble powder made of magnesium and the saturated fat, stearic acid. It is a common additive in processed foods, drugs, and dietary supplements. Magnesium stearate powder is very fine and slippery. Consequently, it serves as a good lubricant or “flow agent” in the manufacturing of dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals by helping the active ingredients “flow” through the machinery more easily during production. Although magnesium is part of the compound, magnesium stearate itself has minimal nutritional value.
Collagen from a marine source, typically from fish.
A microbiome is the combined genetic material of the microorganisms, (e.g., bacteria, bacteriophages, fungi, protozoa and viruses) in a given environment. For example, the human microbiome refers to the collective genetic material of all microorganisms living inside and on the human body. Different microbiomes (e.g., the gut microbiome, oral microbiome, skin microbiome, vaginal microbiome, etc.) contain unique types and diversity of microorganisms.
Mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) is an organelle, or small organ, within a living cell that is responsible for producing the energy needed to fuel the cell and its functions. Mitochondria are often referred to as the “powerhouses” of cells. Multiple mitochondria are often found in cells, particularly those in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
Monk Fruit Extract
Monk fruit extract is a low-carb sweetener derived by clean, water extraction of 100% pure monk fruit, native to Asia (also known as luo han guo and “Buddha fruit”). Mogrosides, the unique compounds in monk fruit that deliver its natural sweetness, have antioxidant properties and are blood sugar-friendly.* This delicious and natural, plant-based sweetener comes in organic varieties.
Macrominerals make up one of the two major groups of essential minerals needed by the body daily. While equally important, micro minerals are needed in smaller amounts than that of the macrominerals. Macrominerals include sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur.
Microminerals, also known as trace minerals, make up one of the two major groups of essential minerals needed by the body daily. While equally important, microminerals are needed in smaller amounts than macrominerals. Microminerals include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum.
Marine minerals offer a unique and naturally bioavailable rich mineral source from the ocean. For example, the Lithomamnion genus, specifically Lithothamnion calcareum, a red alga of the Corallinacea family, offers a whole-plant mineral-rich algae source of calcium. This is the marine form of calcium carbonate but it is structurally different from traditional calcium carbonate. Further, seawater offers a bioavailable mineral source of magnesium that offers a higher solubility than magnesium oxide in water.*
Methylation is a complex and universal cellular process that includes the transfer of four atoms (CH3) from one substance to another. Optimal methylation processes are critical for the health and functioning of cardiovascular, neurological, and detoxification systems, to name a few. The methylation cycle in the body is supported by a number of essential micronutrients that help balance the cycle and support personal differences in individuals’ abilities to methylate properly and optimally. These nutrients, collectively known as “methyl donors” include essential B vitamins (folate (B9), B12, B6, and riboflavin (B2)) and betaine, especially in their most bioactives forms, work together to drive methylation and support its optimal functioning.*
Magnesium is a macromineral required by over 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Magnesium plays a role in bone, muscle, nerve, heart, immune health, cellular energy, and metabolism. Magnesium plays a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, is required for DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, and serves as a cofactor for synthesizing antibodies. Cell signaling, nerve transmission, and ion transport channels all rely on magnesium for proper functioning. Further, a high percentage of magnesium is found in bone, supporting its role in bone stabilization, mineralization, and overall maintenance.*
Manganese is an essential micromineral. Manganese plays a role in activating enzymes that are important for the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol. Manganese is both a constituent of a number of enzymes and acts as an activator of other enzymes. The further function of manganese is seen through its antioxidant capacity as a free radical scavenger, role in bone formation, and immune response.*
Molybdenum is an essential micromineral. As a cofactor to various enzymes, molybdenum plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, nucleotide metabolism, and the support of enzymes involved in detoxification pathways.*
Topical mannitol is a plant-derived sugar that is used as a binding agent, and part of the topical Lactobacillus ferment postbiotic complex. Please see Lactobacillus ferment for more information on postbiotics.
Moringa oleifera Seed Oil
Topical moringa seed oil is derived from the Moringa oleifera tree indigenous to the Himalayan mountains in Northern India. It is rich in antioxidants, monounsaturated fatty acids, and oleic acids that promote a strong skin barrier. The antioxidants have skin-smoothing and brightening properties, too.
Milk thistle extract
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is a powerful botanical herb. The lead phytonutrient, silymarin, delivers antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties – supporting liver detoxification, bile production, and toxin filtration. Milk thistle is protective and regenerative for both liver and kidneys, major detoxifying organs, and also promotes glutathione production.*
Methionine is an essential amino acid providing the building blocks of various proteins throughout the body (i.e., muscles, antibodies, hormones, tissues, and more!). Methionine is required for the synthesis of SAM-e, the body’s universal methyl donor, which is essential for the continued movement of the methionine cycle, and ultimately feeds directly into support methylation functions down the line.
The methionine cycle is a critical component of one-carbon metabolism that drives methylation processes in the body. The cycle is essential for supporting maintenance and metabolism of homocysteine into methionine to support production of SAM-e, the body’s universal methyl donor. SAM-e with the help of specialized enzymes, donates methyl groups to support methylation functions. Bioactive B vitamins (folic acid, riboflavin, vitamin B12, and also betaine) support the methionine cycle. The methionine cycle and the folate cycles work together to drive methylation processes in the body.*
The MTHFR gene provides necessary instructions in the body to make the MTHFR enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. This enzyme is vitally important for the conversion of folate (from leafy greens, legumes, etc.) and folic acid (from certain supplements and fortified foods), into its fully active, methylated form 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF). There can be a lot of variation in individuals’ ability to efficiently convert folic acid into its bioactive form (due to MTHFR gene variants), thus impacting the globally essential biochemical process of methylation. Supplementary support of nutrients including folic acid in its bioactive form (5-MTHF) supports individual differences in this enzyme and the many essential processes that methylation impacts in our body (heart, brain, detox, energy, DNA, RNA, etc.)*
Methylcobalamin, is the methylated bioactive form of vitamin B12, a pivotal nutrient that is whole-body relevant. B12 is required for cellular energy (aka ATP energy from the foods we eat), and formation of DNA, red blood cells, neurons, neurotransmitters, and antibodies. Bioactive B12 is complementary with bioactive folate in the methionine cycle, as they are both essential cofactors for one-carbon metabolism, optimal homocysteine recycling to methionine, and methylation. B12 aids in the metabolism of amino acids that serve as the building blocks for antibodies that provide support to the immune system. B12 is also critical for neuron signaling, neurocognitive function, and synthesis of neurotransmitters.*
MaquiBright® Patagonian maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a Chilean fruit delivering powerful anthocyanin polyphenols. These dark purple phytonutrient pigments are potent antioxidants, helping to neutralize free radicals in our eyes, one of the most metabolically active organs in our entire body. MaquiBright® is clinically shown to enhance ocular comfort, while also reducing ocular fatigue (i.e., tired eyes), and provide dry eye support by promoting tear production.*
Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) is an objective, validated metric that serves as the the main status biomarker for measuring lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoid (macular pigments) levels in the macula of the eye. In other words, it's a specific measure of visual carotenoid status. The concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye (specifically the macular, where they are deposited and work hard to preserve and protect our eyes) is strongly correlated with eye health and visual performance. Macular lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations are 1,000 times higher than blood levels of lutein and zeaxanthin, demonstrating their essential need in this particular organ, our eyes! (That, of course, assumes we’re consuming these carotenoids regularly.)
The macula (functional center of the retina) processes objects directly in front of you or what you’re directly looking at. The macula’s major function is to support visual sharpness and clarity and is essential for visual acuity, particularly for central and color vision, as well as distinguishing fine details. Nutrients and phytonutrients provide targeted and incremental support for macular health and function, especially lutein and zeaxanthin, which are termed macular carotenoids as they are the only ones in nature deposited and concentrated in the macula and found to support healthy levels of macular pigment!*
Metabolism is the vital process by which the body converts what we consume (food and beverages) into energy to fuel our bodies every day. This energy is essential for driving our most basic bodily functions in our cells, tissues, as well as functions that require more energy like physical activity. Metabolism as a whole is a complex process that relies on various biochemical components. Many variables influence our body’s metabolism and metabolic rate (i.e., gender, age, muscle mass, nutrition, physical activity, other lifestyle, hormonal balance, genetics, etc.). A holistic approach to metabolic health and healthy lifestyle choices are integral to a healthy metabolism. One of the ways to support metabolism physiology is through targeted botanical support via science-backed ingredients like cayenne pepper, veld grape, grains of paradise, caffeine, EGCG, to name a few). Metabolism and metabolic health are not only important for promoting a healthy body composition but also for overall health and well-being over the long term.*
Metabolic rate and metabolism are closely related. Metabolic rate can be broken down into different components including resting metabolic rate, thermogenesis, and energy burned during physical activity. Resting metabolic rate (aka resting energy expenditure) refers to the amount of energy burned when the body is at rest, and also makes up the bulk of total daily energy expenditure. Many variables influence our body’s metabolism and metabolic rate (i.e., gender, age, muscle mass, nutrition, physical activity, other lifestyle, hormonal balance, genetics, etc.).
Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin. Tissues in the body convert niacin into its metabolically active form, the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Over 400 enzymes rely upon NAD for proper functioning, the greatest number out of any other vitamin-derived coenzyme. Niacin also functions to support cellular energy production from food and has been shown to promote lipid-modulatory effects that offer potential cardiometabolic health functions.*
N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), is a precursor for the amino acid L-cysteine. NAC has potent antioxidant and antitoxin actions that support liver, lung, kidney, and immune function. As a critical building block precursor used to replenish antioxidants, including glutathione, and scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NAC improves our redox status-promoting antioxidant vs. oxidant balance for cellular protection, resilience, and repair.*
In the dietary supplement space, nootropics refer to nutrients, botanical phytonutrients, or bioactives that act in helpful ways in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the brain to promote the health of the brain and enhance its functions. Simply put, nootropic actions confer “brain power” in the broadest sense. More specifically, this could look like focus and concentration, mental clarity and sharpness, memory, neuronal function, neurotransmitter balance, cerebral blood flow, learning, processing speed, mental precision, and brain benefits like cognitive flexibility, vitality, and performance.*
Oleic acid is a specific type of healthy monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found concentrated in the brain and known to support metabolic health. Healthy oils like avocado and extra virgin olive oils are concentrated in oleic acid, a hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*
Omega-3 fatty acid
Omega-3 fatty acids are healthy unsaturated (specifically, polyunsaturated) fats that incorporate into cell membranes in organs throughout our body. These fats are incorporated in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes throughout the body and are critical for membrane fluidity and cellular signaling pathways. Omega-3s are particularly concentrated in the brain and eyes (e.g., DHA). They have particular relevance for a wide variety of health areas, due to their widespread presence in the body (when they are adequately consumed) . Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential plant-derived omega-3 fatty acid (e.g., from flax), while eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are marine-sourced (e.g., fish, fish oils, algal oils). Omega-3s, especially EPA and DHA, are known for their potent antioxidant actions, supporting a healthy inflammatory response in the body, and for their pro-cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, joint mobility, perinatal health, and vision support qualities.*
Omega-9 fatty acid
Omega-9 fatty acids are healthy unsaturated (specifically, monounsaturated) fats that incorporate into cell membranes in organs throughout our body. These fats are particularly concentrated in the brain and known to support metabolic health. Oleic acid is a specific and the most famous type of omega-9 fatty acid. Healthy oils like avocado and extra virgin olive oils are particularly concentrated in oleic acid, a hallmark heart-healthy unsaturated fat that predominates the Mediterranean diet.*
ORIVO certification is a rigorous 3rd party testing program in Norway that leverages evidence-based technology to guarantee omega-3 product authenticity and transparency. ORIVO’s state-of-the-art testing methods in Norway utilize advanced fingerprinting technology called magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which verifies the species and geographic origin of the fish found in the fish oil. ORIVO certification is rare to find on U.S. fish oil brands.
The omega-3 index is a biomarker of long-term omega-3 status. The index measures both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the blood and represents the percentage of EPA and DHA present in total red blood cell fatty acids. The omega-3 index is modifiable through diet and targeted supplementation (i.e., fish oil), with higher percentages being associated with healthy omega-3 status and greater cardioprotection.*
The term “pasture-raised” refers to animals that have spent at least some time outdoors on pasture, feeding on grass or allowed to forage.
PharmaGABA® is a naturally-sourced dietary supplement form of GABA, a neurotransmitter whose primary role is to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.* PharmaGABA® is produced via a unique fermentation process that utilizes Lactobacillus hilgardii, the same bacteria that is used to ferment cabbage in the preparation of the traditional Asian dish known as kimchi. PharmaGABA® is the a registered trademark for GABA of Pharma Foods International Co., Ltd.
Phytoceramides (AKA plant ceramides) are plant-derived, concentrated skin-critical lipids known to decrease with age. This unique beauty bioactive is essential for skin barrier structure, function and homeostasis. Phytoceramides have been clinically shown to reduce dryness and wrinkles, while significantly improving skin hydration, elasticity, and smoothness.*
A prebiotic compound is a substance, often in the form of a dietary fiber, that when consumed--either in food or as a dietary supplement--promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.*
A probiotic is a substance comprised of or containing one or more types of live microorganisms, that when consumed--either in food, beverage, dietary supplement--in adequate amounts helps maintain or restore beneficial bacteria to that environment and confer health support.*
Pomegranate whole fruit extract
Pomegranate whole fruit extract is a premium botanical extract from the pomegranate fruit, which is concentrated in antioxidants. Harvested from pomegranate orchards, this ingredient leverages the whole fruit synergy in a native pomegranate extract. Promoting cellular resilience for healthy aging, this superfruit extract is clinically shown to enhance antioxidant responses and skin photoprotection from UV exposure and stress.*
pomma+® is a premium pomegranate whole fruit botanical extract concentrated in antioxidants. Harvested from California orchards, pomma+® leverages whole fruit synergy in a native pomegranate extract. Promoting cellular resilience and antioxidant properties for healthy aging, this superfruit extract is clinically shown to enhance antioxidant responses and skin photoprotection from UV exposure and stress. pomma+® is a registered trademark of Hawkins, Inc., parent company of STAUBER.*
Pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, is a water-soluble essential nutrient. A significant function of this B vitamin is the synthesis of coenzyme A and acyl carrier proteins. Coenzyme A is a necessary component of an array of biochemical reactions that support well-being, including the activity of several proteins, as well as fatty acid synthesis and degradation. Pantothenic acid also demonstrates potential lipid-modulating effects, including positive effects on HDL cholesterol and a role in cellular energy and metabolism.*
Potassium is an essential macromineral, present in all tissues in the body and necessary for normal cellular function. Tight regulation of potassium inside and outside of cells (often called cell membrane potential) is essential for nerve signaling and healthy biological processes. Potassium also affects calcium balance and has a close relationship with sodium. When potassium is consumed in sufficient amounts, it can support functional health areas such as bone and muscle function.*
Pyrus malus (Apple) Fruit Extract
Topical Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract is a natural topical ingredient created from apple skin stem cells. It is part of a natural antioxidant complex found in some of our topical formulations. Together, the Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract create a complex that delivers a wide range of skin-supporting nutrients and benefits like citrulline and polysaccharides for water retention, vitamin B5 to smooth skin, and trisaccharides to enhance epidermal barrier function.
Topical propanediol, also known as 1,3-propanediol, is a colorless liquid that's naturally derived from corn glucose, or corn sugar. It is an excellent and safe solvent, which means it effectively dissolves other ingredients in the formula. Propanediol has a synthetic cousin named propylene glycol, or 1,2-propanediol. It's also easy to confuse the two, as they're both types of propanediol. But propylene glycol has been recently found to cause allergic reactions, whereas propanediol is well tolerated. It is part of our prebiotic complex. Please see Chlorella vulgaris extract for more information.
Proresolving mediators (PMs) or specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) are bioactive lipid mediators derived from specific omega-6 and omega-3 fats. PMs belong to four families: omega-6 arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins and omega-3 EPA- and DHA-derived resolvins, protectins, and maresins. These omega-3 derived bioactive lipids fromEPA and DHA omega-3s from fish oil are critically important, with principal roles in supporting active resolution of inflammatory pathways, immune response and balance, and promotion of cellular resilience.*
PureWay-C™ is a unique form of vitamin C with unique absorption technology. This form of vitamin C offers enhanced bioavailability via the addition of lipid and citrus bioflavonoid components. The fatty acids from rice bran and citrus bioflavonoids from bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) deliver optimized cellular uptake kinetics and retention, allowing for enhanced absorption in the gut and superior serum response in the blood. Citrus bioflavonoids buffer vitamin C from oxidizers in the body, and fatty acid lipids help chauffer the vitamin C into cells more efficiently. With science-backed superiority demonstrated for cellular absorption, serum response, and advantage for free radical scavenging abilities (aka antioxidant power) and its ability to promote a healthy inflammatory response, this is a novel and premium source of vitamin C.*
Panax ginseng is an ancient adaptogenic herb with stimulating, antioxidant, and blood sugar-balancing actions. This ginseng species is an “actoprotector”—a unique adaptogen that modulates key brain neurotransmitters to promote stress resilience, mind-body energy, and cognitive efficiency. Ginseng has clinically shown synergy with guarana to combat mental tiredness and enhance mood, task speed, and cognitive performance.*
Polar-nonpolar-sandwich (PNS) technology
Polar-nonpolar-sandwich (PNS) technology, or polar sandwiching technology, is a cutting-edge, modern science delivery system to protect and efficiently deliver bioactives intrinsic to botanical extracts to the body. A full spectrum of native plant compounds are encapsulated and protected between polar and nonpolar constituents creating a complete matrix. This allows bioactive compounds native to the botanicals to be protected inside the matrix, with the synergy and stability of polar and nonpolar layers. The complementary and optimized polarity of the botanical extract allows bioactives to pass through the lipid membrane of our cells easily for utilization. Acumin™ (full-spectrum turmeric root extract from Curcuma longa) and Ginactiv® (full-spectrum ginger root extract from Zingiber officinale) leverage this PNS technology, allowing us to take advantage of the complete bioactive profile intrinsic to these ancient Ayurvedic spices. PNS technology has been scientifically shown to provide turmeric and ginger root extracts with enhanced stability, bioavailability, and bioefficacy. This novel delivery technology solves previous absorption challenges (low absorption rates in the gut and rapid metabolism in the body) to give these ancient antioxidant spices a modern makeover to effectively deliver their whole-body health benefits.*
Patagonian maqui berry
Patagonian maqui berry extract (Aristotelia chilensis) is a Chilean fruit delivering powerful anthocyanin polyphenols. These dark purple phytonutrient pigments are potent antioxidants, helping to neutralize free radicals in our eyes, one of the most metabolically active organs in our entire body. Maqui berry (as MaquiBright®) is clinically shown to enhance ocular comfort, while also reducing ocular fatigue (i.e., tired eyes), and provide dry eye support by promoting tear production.*
Quercetin is a plant-based powerhouse antioxidant and potent immunomodulator.* Quercetin is found in key fruits and vegetables, as well as Japanese pagoda tree flowers. The unique phytosome form is a liposomal format that enhances bioavailability. In addition to supporting immune resilience through antioxidant actions, quercetin also promotes a balanced immune response.*
Quatrefolic® methylfolate is the fully activated, methylated folic acid (5-MTHF) in its glucosamine salt form for optimal absorption and immediate utilization in the body. In this bioactive and finished form, folic acid is clinically shown to support healthy homocysteine and SAM-e levels to drive optimal methylation function in every cell of the body.*
Riboflavin (vitamin B2), is an essential water-soluble micronutrient. Riboflavin is a precursor for major coenzyme flavoproteins in the body. These enzymes play a vital role in energy production and metabolic pathways. Riboflavin, in its bioactive form, riboflavin 5’-phosphate, is a required cofactor for the MTHFR enzyme, and thus, normal folate metabolism which is needed for healthy methylation processes in the body. Riboflavin demonstrates antioxidant properties while also having a role in immunity and brain function. Involved in glutathione recycling, riboflavin also supports the body’s detoxification systems. In addition to antioxidant and immune function pathways, vitamin B2 is also required for the production of niacin, vitamin B6, red blood cells, and ATP energy from the food we consume each day.*
Resveratrol (i.e., trans-resveratrol) is a neuroprotective polyphenol and botanical bioactive that provides powerful antioxidant actions, supporting various facets of longevity including combating oxidative stress, promoting oxidant balance, cellular resilience, and mitochondrial health. Its direct antioxidant ability allows for targeting of inflammatory components, immune-regulatory effects, and support of cardiometabolic, cognitive, and whole-body health. This phytonutrient’s unique nitric oxide-mediated vasoactive properties and cerebrovascular benefits are clinically shown to increase blood flow to the brain (i.e., cerebral blood flow) and enhance processing speed, word retention (verbal memory), and cognitive task performance.*
Rosemary extract comes from the evergreen herb, rosemary (Salvia rosmarinus). It is a fragrant botanical from the mint family. The antioxidants found in the rosemary plant naturally support the freshness and shelf-life of fish oil supplements.
Redox-oxidation (redox) reactions in our body play essential roles in maintaining cellular function, and “redox status” refers to the balance or homeostasis between these oxidized and reduced compounds. Our body’s complex antioxidant networks work to balance the tables of production vs. scavenging of free radicals (aka redox balance). Redox balance is important for cells because it allows for biological molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and physiological systems to go about their normal functions optimally. Free radicals are normal byproducts of our body’s everyday cellular processes and essential immune response - but the goal is to support homeostasis or balance of these byproducts daily and throughout life.
The retina is a layer at the back of your eye (opposite the lens and pupil). The lens focuses light as it enters the eye, and the retina then senses the light, processes it via photoreceptors, and sends signals to the brain so you can perceive a visual picture. This demonstrates how essential retinal health and function are to our overall vision and quality of life. Targeted nutrients and phytonutrients such as lutein and zeaxanthin provide antioxidant and neuroprotective action to enhance visual performance once deposited in the retinal tissues.*
You won't find shellac in our products. Quite different from the varnish-like substance used in woodworking projects, this shellac is a resinous substance secreted by the insect, Laccifer lacca (lac), that is used in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries for its clear-coating and adhesive properties. Essentially it is what gives some medicinal tablets their shiny look.
Sirtuins (encoded by SIRT genes) are a family of proteins that play a role in aging by regulating cellular health. They are responsible for critical biological functions like DNA expression and aspects of aging. SIRT rely heavily on the presence of NAD+, derived from vitamin B3, niacin. Because SIRT activity is so dependent on NAD+, the two compounds are linked to cellular lifespan, metabolism, and even regulation of inflammatory processes. As NAD+ pools decline naturally during the aging process, SIRT function will decline as well. Consequently, maintaining optimal levels of NAD+ will also help maintain healthy SIRT activity and promote optimal mitochondrial function and may help support healthy aging.*
Sulforaphane glucosinolate (SGS) is a natural substance extracted from the seeds and sprouts of cruciferous vegetables, like broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. SGS has "indirect" antioxidant properties, helping protect cells from free radical damage.* Typical antioxidants, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, work "directly" to neutralize free radicals and are usually effective soon after they are consumed.* By contrast, when SGS is ingested and begins to break down in the gut, it releases sulforaphane, thereby activating the body's natural detoxification and antioxidant enzymes and providing more indirect, yet broad support against free radicals and oxidative processes.*
Setria® glutathione is a bioactive, vegan antioxidant derived purely from microbial fermentation created by industry leaders in amino acid technology. This form offers the powerful tripeptide vital antioxidant with clinically proven bioavailability and absorption to elevate glutathione storage and status in the body. Glutathione is the most abundant endogenous antioxidant and serves as a critical regulator of oxidative stress. Glutathione levels fluctuate during the day, and glutathione production decreases with age. On the front lines of whole-body detoxification – glutathione systematically scavenges and neutralizes free radicals, driving multi-organ detox pathways (liver, kidneys, lungs, gut), and cleaning up cellular debris and toxins. Glutathione supplementation enhances the glutathione content of essential tissues supporting health functions, including cellular longevity, detoxification, immune and brain support. Setria® glutathione offers robust, published clinical evidence for its actions as a critical regulator of oxidative stress, detoxification, and immune function.*
Selenium is an essential micromineral. As a critical constituent and activator of selenoproteins, selenium plays a vital role in thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant function, glutathione enzyme function, and DNA synthesis. With purifying and protective detox, antioxidant, and redox actions, selenium aids in combating DNA damage and oxidative stress throughout the body. Selenomethionine has clinically shown bioavailability and superior ability to raise selenium levels in the body.*
Silica is a trace mineral and the third most abundant trace element in the body. Silica shows benefit in protection and support of skin strength and elasticity, collagen synthesis, and hydroxylating enzymes, demonstrating beneficial effects on skin and bone health and function.*
Topical sorbitan olivate is an ester coming from sorbitol and the fatty acids of olive oil. It is used as a skin care emulsifier.
Topical squalene is an oil naturally produced by the skin. It is a vital part of its sebum—sebum protects skin and keeps you hydrated—and you can help improve your skin barrier function by applying it topically. In our topical formulas, we use non-hydrolyzed squalene form, which is extracted from olives. This form of the ingredient is great for dry areas of skin such as the hands and body.
Topical sodium benzoate is used as a topical preservative system. In our formulas we use a natural, patented preservative system known as Geogard Ultra®. It is a synergistic blend of gluconolactone and sodium benzoate that not only has broad spectrum preservation efficacy, but can actually contribute to skin hydration. Most organic preservation acids are too weak on their own and require a co-preservative. In this case, gluconolactone acts as a booster for sodium benzoate by time-releasing gluconic acid so it can be more effective for longer periods of time. The blend is in compliance with ECOCERT/COSMOS, NATRUE and the Soil Association, organizations that have some of the highest standards in the EU.
Topical sodium lactate can be used as a humectant, as is a naturally occurring part of the natural, clean Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract complex. Please see any of those entries for more information.
Topical sodium PCA is a conditioning agent and an amino acid derivative—it is a naturally occurring part of the natural, clean Pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) fruit extract, and Lens esculenta (lentil) fruit extract complex. Please see any of those entries for more information.
Topical sodium hydroxide Is a pH balancer and often used at low-levels in skin care to keep a formula’s pH stable.
Sodium Stearoyl Lactylate
Sodium stearoyl lactylate is a biodegradable, oil-in-water emulsifying agent. See emulsifier for more information.
SAM-e, S-adenosyl-L-methionine, is a compound in the body commonly known as the universal methyl donor. SAM-e with the help of specialized enzymes called methyltransferases, supports all methylation processes in the body by donating methyl groups. Folic acid, in its bioactive form, is clinically shown to support SAM-e levels to drive optimal methylation function in the body.*
Sceletium tortuosum, commonly known as kanna, is a potent nootropic botanical and indigenous South African plant with millennia of historical use. Along with balancing key neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin) and brain waves, kanna is clinically shown to improve executive function and cognitive flexibility, which impacts everything from decision making and impulse control to multitasking. Research also demonstrates this botanical’s ability to enhance mental well-being and mood, by strengthening our resilience to stressful stimuli and supporting a sense of serenity. Zembrin® delivers ecologically responsible and sustainably sourced kanna from South Africa.*
Sustained-release caffeine refers to a source or unique form of caffeine that utilizes special absorption technology to deliver the phytonutrient in a way that supports its extended, timed release and actions in the body over several hours. Sustained-release Xtenergy caffeine from green coffee beans (Coffea robusta), for example, is a plant-sourced caffeine for mental performance and vitality. This unique botanical bioactive demonstrates benefits for sustained mental and physical energy, concentration, mood balance, and more—while also combating the caffeine “crash” (i.e., mental fatigue, jitters, and drop in the mood). Indeed, Xtenergy is clinically shown to raise caffeine levels in the body for longer via sustained-release technology, enhancing nootropic benefits for mental and physical performance. When combined, instant- and sustained-caffeine release profiles can offer dual energy benefits for the mind and body through-out-the day.*
Suntheanine® is a pure, premium amino acid bioactive known as L-theanine, which has balancing actions to promote calm but focused energy. This relaxed yet alert mental state is due to L-theanine’s neuroprotective properties in the central nervous system. The most clinically researched form of L-theanine is Suntheanine®, research demonstrates this active ingredient's ability to enhance concentration without ‘jitters’. Indeed, L-theanine is clinically shown to improve the performance of demanding tasks and increase alpha brain wave activity, relaxing the mind (sans drowsiness). In tandem with caffeine, L-theanine enhances attention span and multitasking.*
Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a golden premium spice. Saffron flower extract provides crocin and crocetin bioactives, special phytochemicals known as apocarotenoids (a unique carotenoid category). Boasting antioxidant and neuroprotective properties at the cellular level, saffron is clinically shown to support photoreceptor cells, retinal function, and visual acuity, while helping reduce intraocular (eye) pressure.*
Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a member of the same plant family as ginger (Zingiberaceae), is a flowering plant whose rhizome (turmeric root) is commonly used, particularly in Indian and Asian cultures, as a culinary spice and herbal remedy. Turmeric has been used in ancient Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese medicine, and other herbalist traditions for many centuries for its health-promoting properties. A full-spectrum turmeric root extract (Acumin™) features the complete array of turmeric root plant compounds (including the famous polyphenol curcuminoids) by leveraging polar-nonpolar-sandwich (PNS) technology to achieve a major bioavailability and bioefficacy advantage. Acumin™ is clinically shown to increase curcuminoid levels, support healthy levels of key biomarkers (CRP and ESR), support joint health, and improve muscle strength and post-exercise recovery. With this cutting-edge absorption technology, this antioxidant golden spice is optimized for whole-body health.*
Trace minerals, also known as microminerals, make up one of the two major groups of essential minerals needed by the body. While equally important, trace minerals are required in smaller amounts than macrominerals. Trace minerals include iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, copper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum. Non-essential trace minerals include silica, boron, vanadium, and others.
Thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is an essential water-soluble B vitamin with an important role in several enzymatic functions, including the metabolism of carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, and fatty acids. A strong role in cellular energy and metabolism and the synthesis of neurotransmitters highlight thiamin’s role in healthy brain function.*
Triglycerides are fat; they are triesters consisting of a glycerol bound to three fatty acid molecules and the form in which fatty acids are found in the diet and in dietary sources (e.g., fish). Fish oil in the triglyceride form offers the most superior bioavailability to support healthy levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) omega-3s in the body.*
ThermoGP™ grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) is an ancient, edible spice from the ginger family. Concentrated in 6-paradol and gingerol bioactives, the premium ThermoGP™ grains of paradise extract is sourced from West Africa. This unique botanical aids increases in metabolic rate and calorie burn by activating thermogenic brain adipose tissue (BAT). Grains of paradise is clinically shown to enhance whole-body energy expenditure and body composition by reducing visceral fat.*
Kaneka ubiquinol® is the most bioavailable, bioactive form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a potent antioxidant found in every cell of the human body, including the skin. Concentrated in mitochondria (the energy powerhouses of cells), CoQ10 is required for cellular energy production and rejuvenation. Ubiquinol is clinically shown to increase CoQ10 levels (which decline with age) and reduce oxidative stress. CoQ10 supports skin elasticity and smoothness, while combating wrinkles.* Q+®, Kaneka Ubiquinol® and the quality seal® are registered trademarks of Kaneka Corp.
Topical ubiquinone is a form of coenzyme Q10, a natural antioxidant produced by the body. All antioxidants protect skin against free radicals, but CoQ10 also protects against lipid peroxidation, a process by which free radicals stress skin cell membranes. To top it off, CoQ10 can also regenerate other antioxidants.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is naturally found in a variety of fruits and vegetables, such as citrus fruits (e.g., oranges, lemons, grapefruit), but also berries (including acerola cherries), peppers, and cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower). Unlike most animals, humans are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so we must consume it daily. Daily vitamin C intake promotes overall well-being via its antioxidant cellular health actions in the body. In addition to being a well-known antioxidant, vitamin C is required by the body to synthesize collagen and support iron absorption. A potent antioxidant vital for immune defense actions via innate and adaptive immunity, vitamin C helps buffer these and all our systems from oxidative stress. Vitamin C also supports beauty, heart, cellular and whole-body detoxification systems, and brain health.*
Vitamin D is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient and hormone, naturally produced by the skin when exposed to direct sunlight. Vitamin D is necessary for the regulation of minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorus, in the body. Consequently, it plays an integral role in maintaining healthy bones and muscles. Vitamin D is also important in promoting healthy immune function. Vitamin D receptors are found on immune cells, facilitating vitamin D’s immunomodulatory actions, helping to strengthen our natural defense mechanisms. Although sunlight provides natural vitamin D, many individuals of all ages, especially the elderly, do not get enough vitamin D from sunlight and their diet. Vitamin D is one of the most common nutrient gaps and deficiencies worldwide, and supplementation is of great benefit in these situations to achieve sufficiency (25(OH)D > 30 ng/mL). Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is the most bioavailable and bioactive form of vitamin D to consume. Organic algal vitamin D3 is the purest and most sustainable plant-origin vitamin D3 source available.*
Vitamin A includes a group of fat-soluble retinoids, including retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters. The two forms of vitamin A available in the human diet include preformed vitamin A (retinol and retinyl ester) and provitamin A carotenoids (with beta-carotene being by far the most important). The body converts these plant pigments into vitamin A for utilization in several essential physiologic processes. Vitamin A supports growth and specialization of nearly all cells in the body, regulates gene expression, and promotes a healthy inflammatory response in cells and tissues. Consequently, the nutritional sufficiency of this vitamin allows for support of immune and eye health, as well as reproduction and cellular communication.*
Vitamin E is the collective name for a group of fat-soluble compounds, with alpha-tocopherol being the only form with the capacity to meet human requirements and the primary form in blood and tissue. This essential fat-soluble micronutrient acts as a lipid-soluble antioxidant combating the propagation of free radicals. Vitamin E also plays a supportive role in cell-mediated immunity and biosynthesis of collagen and elastin, working to aid in protecting lipid structures.*
Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is a naturally occurring fat-soluble micronutrient. Phylloquinone represents the main dietary form of vitamin K and is present in green leafy vegetables. Vitamin K1 plays a significant role in bone and heart health through coagulation processes essential for blood clotting, skeletal formation and normal calcification processes, and regulation of cellular functions.*
Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) is a fat-soluble micronutrient found mainly in animal-based and fermented foods. Vitamin K2 is an essential micronutrient that plays an important role in heart and bone health. Not only does vitamin K help direct calcium, but it also supports healthy calcium metabolism demonstrating its supportive role in vascular and bone health. The menaquinone-7 (MK-7) form of K2 has clinical evidence to support its bioavailability.*
Vitamin B6 is an essential water-soluble B vitamin that supports over 100 enzymes required mainly for healthy protein metabolism. Vitamin B6 serves several physiologic functions especially acting as a potent antioxidant critical for cellular well-being. Not only working to produce cellular energy from food, vitamin B6 also serves in a neuroprotective capacity, necessary for nervous system function and synthesis of neurotransmitters and nucleic acids. The ability to regulate lymphocyte (aka, specialized immune cells known as B cells and T cells) proliferation, differentiation, and maturation demonstrates its importance in immune function. Vitamin B6 also plays a critical role in supporting a healthy methylation cycle in the body by supporting folate metabolism and maintenance of normal homocysteine levels. Vitamin B6-dependent enzymes are required for the metabolism and breakdown of homocysteine to generate cysteine, which serves as an amino acid building block for collagen, keratin, glutathione, and other important compounds in the body.*
Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble B vitamin. Vitamin B12, especially in its bioactive, methylated methylcobalamin form, serves several functions in the body, including support of brain health, immune health, cellular energy production and metabolism (aka ATP from the foods we eat), as well as acting as a cofactor for important components of the methylation cycle. Bioactive B12 is complementary with bioactive folate in the methionine cycle, as they are both essential cofactors for one-carbon metabolism, optimal homocysteine recycling to methionine, and methylation. B12 aids in the metabolism of amino acids that serve as the building blocks for antibodies that provide support to the immune system. Also as a brain-loving micronutrient, B12 is critical for neuron signaling, neurocognitive function, and synthesis of neurotransmitters.*
Veri-te™ delivers trans-resveratrol derived via innovative fermentation technology and sustainable process. Resveratrol, as a neuroprotective polyphenol, delivers antioxidant actions to combat oxidative stress and foster cellular resilience, mitochondrial health, and longevity. This phytonutrient’s unique nitric oxide-mediated vasoactive properties and cerebrovascular benefits are clinically shown to increase blood flow to the brain (i.e., cerebral blood flow) and enhance processing speed, word retention (verbal memory), and cognitive task performance.*
Veld grape (Cissus quadrangularis) is a unique botanical sourced from the stems and leaves of the succulent plant from India. Boasting flavonoids, stilbene, and ketosterone bioactives, veld grape is clinically shown to fight oxidative stress, and maintain energy balance and appetite hormones (leptin, adiponectin, and serotonin). CQR-300® veld grape has been clinically shown to promote key measures of cardiometabolic health (blood sugar, blood pressure, and lipids), and support healthy weight, waist circumference, and body composition.*
Water-soluble vitamins easily dissolve in water and are readily absorbed into tissue for immediate use. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body and therefore needed daily in the diet to ensure necessary replenishment. Included in the water-soluble vitamin family are vitamin C and the B-complex group (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folate, and vitamin B12).
Water is present in all aqueous-based topical formulations, such as lotions, creams, and many serums. As your skin needs water to stay hydrated, it helps moisturize the skin. Additionally, water is naturally occurring in many skin care ingredients—such as aloe, fruit extracts, and coconut oil—so water is often present in formulations based on that.
Xtenergy, sustained-release plant-origin caffeine from green coffee beans (Coffea robusta) leverages innovative technology to effectively raise caffeine levels in the body for longer, enhancing caffeine’s nootropic benefits. Xtenergy is clinically shown to promote mental and physical energy, concentration, mood balance, and more—while also combating caffeine "crash" (i.e., mental fatigue, jitters, drop-in mood). You can literally feel the clinically researched benefits, mental precision, and vitality of this bioavailable caffeine.*
Zinc is an essential trace mineral and underconsumed nutrient for many. Zinc bisglycinate chelate is a gentle, bioavailable form of zinc. Along with supporting host resistance and resilience, this antioxidant nutrient is critical for normal immune function and healing, our body’s inflammatory response, and the development and protection of immune cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems.*
Zeaxanthin is a phytonutrient (xanthophyll) macular carotenoid found at the back of the eyes. Darky leafy greens and marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta) are some of the richest sources. At clinically studied doses, zeaxanthin has the capacity to act as a longevity botanical supporting functional health areas including, brain, heart, and eye health. Zeaxanthin has major light filtering abilities, provides photoprotection from UV exposure, and supports optimal visual performance. Lutein and zeaxanthin (as Lutemax® 2020) are clinically shown to improve MPOD, photostress recovery, visual performance, and macular health and longevity. Consistent and daily intake of zeaxanthin aids in supporting visual function and protection and essentiality of macular carotenoids in this “digital age”.*
Zembrin® is a premium standardized extract of the indigenous South African plant and potent nootropic botanical, Sceletium tortuosum (aka kanna). Along with sustainably and ecologically responsible sourcing, Zembrin® is clinically shown to improve executive function and cognitive flexibility, which impacts everything from decision making and impulse control to multitasking. Research also demonstrates this botanical’s ability to enhance mental well-being and mood, by strengthening our resilience to stressful stimuli and supporting a sense of serenity. Zembrin® delivers ecologically responsible and sustainably sourced kanna from South Africa*