Science Glossary+

Learn more about our thoughtfully curated ingredients that exist in our products.




Astaxanthin is a naturally-occuring carotenoid found in certain algae. Astaxanthin is responsible for the pinkish to red-orange color in salmon, trout, lobster, shrimp, and other seafood. Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant.


An adaptogen is an herb or naturally derived substance that helps the body modulate or “adapt” to stress, supporting a normalizing effect on the body.


Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a naturally occurring chemical molecule found in all living cells. ATP is the main energetic currency within cells and necessary for all cells to live and function. ATP is produced in the mitochondria of cells.



Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is an amino acid derivative that occurs naturally in plants. Betaine provides nutrient support to protect against the condition known as fatty liver, and it also promotes the metabolism of homocysteine, an amino acid that can be a sign of cardiovascular stress if levels are too high. In addition, betaine provides positive support for other metabolic functions associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is the term for a combination of conditions that occur together that increase your risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes.


Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a chemical compound, also known as bicyclic sesquiterpene, naturally found in many herbal essential oils, particularly rosemary, clove, black pepper, hops, black cumin, and hemp. Research has demonstrated that BCP can activate certain cannabinoid receptors in the body, known as CB2 receptors, and consequently may support neurological and immune function and promote calming and relaxation without any psychoactive side-effects.

Bifidobacterium lactis B420

Bifidobacterium lactis B420 is a specific strain of Bifidobacterium lactis, a bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals. Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to preventing overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system. In fact, early studies on Bifidobacterium lactis B420 suggest that this probiotic strain may be beneficial in maintaining a healthy weight and blood sugar.

Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07

Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 is a specific strain of Bifidobacterium lactis, a bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals. Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to preventing overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system. Specifically, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 has been extensively studied regarding its potential benefits on immune function, and evidence suggests that it may be one of the best strains for this indication.

Bifidobacterium lactis HN019

Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 is a specific strain of Bifidobacterium lactis, a bacterium living in the large intestine of most mammals. Bifidobacteria are generally considered “friendly” bacteria, and play a key role in many bodily functions, from facilitating proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, to preventing overgrowth of harmful bacteria, to helping maintain a robust immune system. Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 has been clinically shown to establish and support a healthy flora in the gut.

Black Cumin Seed

Black cumin (Nigella sativa), is a small shrub that grows in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Southwest Asia. Its seeds and oil have been used for generations for cooking and for medicinal purposes. Archeologists have even found black cumin seeds in King Tut’s tomb, a testament to their perceived value. Modern research has shown black cumin seed oil to have antioxidant properties and may be helpful in relieving inflammation in the body and on the skin. Among its beneficial constituents, black cumin seed oil contains the phytocannabinoid, beta-caryophyllene.



Ceramosides® is a proprietary, highly concentrated, gluten-free phytoceramide extract from wheat (Triticum vulgare) that may be consumed as a dietary supplement or applied topically for improving skin hydration. The unique process involved in making Ceramosides concentrates the skin-friendly lipids, eliminating the gluten-containing proteins, resulting in a gluten-free phytoceramide extract. Ceramosides is a trademark of E.P.I. France.


Carotenoids are a class of nutrients found in the cells of plants, algae, and bacteria, that have a range of color from bright yellow to deep red pigments. Carotenoids help these organisms absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis. When consumed by humans, carotenoids serve as important antioxidants, protecting the body’s cells from free radical damage.


Cloves are the aromatic flower buds from the Syzygium aromaticum tree, native to the Maluku Islands (or Moluccas) in Indonesia. Cloves are commonly used as a culinary spice. Historically, cloves were used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine and Western herbalism for their warming properties. Clove essential oil is often used in aromatherapy. Clove essential oil also contains the phytocannabinoid, beta-caryophyllene.




Endocannabinoids (endogenous cannabinoids) are a type of neurotransmitter made by the body, and are part of a larger system known as the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). The endocannabinoid system acts like an internal balancing mechanism, constantly keeping a vast range of bodily functions in equilibrium. The body produces endocannabinoids that modulate various biological processes throughout the body, giving wide-ranging effects on everything from fertility to pain.




Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major calming brain chemical or neurotransmitter. Its primary role is to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system.


You will never find gluten in our products. Gluten is a complex mixture of proteins – glutenins and gliadins – present in cereal grains, particularly varieties and derivatives of wheat (e.g., durum, spelt, semolina, rye, barley, triticale, etc.). It is the substance responsible for giving dough its elastic texture. Consumption of gluten elicits severe autoimmune reactions in people with celiac disease.


You will never find GMOs in our products. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are living organisms whose genetic material has been artificially manipulated in a laboratory through genetic engineering. Such manipulations can include any combination of plant, animal, bacteria, and/or virus genes to produce organisms that do not occur in nature or that can be achieved through traditional cross breeding methods.



Hemp, also referred to as industrial hemp, is a cultivar of the plant Cannabis sativa and is an excellent source of protein, fiber, and healthy fats like omega 3, omega 6, and omega 9 fatty acids. It is also rich in natural compounds called phytocannabinoids. When ingested, these phytocannabinoids interact with a special system in the body called the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and can help reduce feelings of stress and relieve occasional aches, soreness, and discomfort. Unlike marijuana, the other common cultivar of Cannabis sativa, industrial hemp contains less than 0.3% of the psychoactive compound tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC.


Hops are the green, cone-shaped flower of the female hops plant, Humulus lupulus. Hops are commonly known for use in brewing beer and as flavoring components in foods. Hops have also been used in traditional herbal medicine for their calming and sedative properties. Hops belong to the Cannabaceae family, the same family as hemp. Like hemp, hops are a source of the phytocannabinoid, beta-caryophyllene.



Inflammation is a localized physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, swollen, hot, and often painful, especially as a reaction to injury or infection.


Jujube Fruit

Jujube (Ziziphus jujube) is a shrub-like tree, the fruit of which has been used in Asian cuisine and in Traditional Chinese Medicine for gastrointestinal and digestive support, and for calming and sedation.



Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM® is a strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus, a bacterium. It is well-researched and has been used in several clinical trials related to different areas of gastrointestinal and general health, including immune function, antibiotic-associated gut disturbances, and the symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).


You will never find lectins in our products. Lectins are proteins naturally found in plants. The role of lectins is to protect the plant as it grows. Some foods that are relatively high in lectins include beans, peanuts, lentils, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, fruits, and wheat and other grains. Lectins typically do not have much nutritional value when consumed in foods. That said, some lectins may promote inflammatory responses in sensitive or susceptible individuals. As such, it is advised that susceptible individuals avoid or greatly reduce their intake of high-lectin foods and/or dietary supplements containing high-lectin foods.



Mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria) is an organelle, or small organ, within a living cell that is responsible for producing the energy needed to fuel the cell and its function. Mitochondria are often referred to as the “powerhouse” of a cell. Multiple mitochondria are often found in cells, particularly those in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.

Magnesium Bisglycinate

Magnesium bisglycinate is a dietary supplement form of magnesium that binds the mineral to the amino acid glycine. Magnesium bisglycinate has demonstrated greater absorption of magnesium by the body than other forms of magnesium dietary supplements.

Magnesium Stearate

You will never find magnesium stearate in our products. Magnesium stearate is a white water-insoluble powder made of magnesium and the saturated fat, stearic acid. It is a common additive in processed foods, drugs, and dietary supplements. Magnesium stearate powder is very fine and slippery. Consequently, it serves as a good lubricant or “flow agent” in the manufacturing of dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals by helping the active ingredients “flow” through the machinery more easily during production. Although magnesium is part of the compound, magnesium stearate itself has minimal nutritional value.


A microbiome is the combined genetic material of the microorganisms, (e.g., bacteria, bacteriophages, fungi, protozoa and viruses) in a given environment. For example, the human microbiome refers to the collective genetic material of all microorganisms living inside and on the human body.


Nicotinamide Riboside

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a special form of vitamin B3, of which trace amounts can be found naturally in cow’s milk, yeast, and beer. NR is promoted as an anti-aging dietary supplement because it boosts the body’s ability to produce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a naturally occurring coenzyme that fuels many key biological processes, including conversion of food into energy, repairing damaged DNA, and maintaining healthy cellular metabolism.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), is a naturally occurring chemical cofactor found in all living cells and is an essential component in the metabolic processes of daily life. For example, NAD+ is necessary for the conversion of the dietary nutrients to cellular energy. More specifically, NAD+ is an important transporter of hydrogen and electrons and needed for the mitochondria within each cell to continuously produce energy as adenosyl triphosphate (ATP). NAD+ also plays a primary role as a helper molecule for proteins that regulate other biological activities including, but not limited to, oxidative stress and circadian rhythms. As we get older, our ability to maintain optimal NAD+ levels can decline. As such, finding ways to help maintain optimal NAD+ levels may be a way to help slow the aging process.




A phytocannabinoid is any plant-derived chemical compound that interacts either directly with the body’s cannabinoid receptors and/or shares chemical similarity with cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to support the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and consequently may be beneficial in supporting healthy immune function, promoting healthy mood and relaxation, and helping improve memory, among a number of other benefits. Beta caryophyllene, also a phytocannabinoid, is a substance found in plants, such as hemp, clove, black pepper, rosemary, hops, and black cumin. It supports similar health benefits to CBD.


A substance, typically in the form of a dietary fiber, that when consumed--either in food or as a dietary supplement--promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.


A substance, comprised of or containing one or more microorganisms, that when consumed--either in food or as a dietary supplement--helps maintain or restore beneficial bacteria to that environment.


PharmaGABA® is the only naturally-sourced dietary supplement form of GABA, a neurotransmitter whose primary role is to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. PharmaGABA is produced via a fermentation process that utilizes Lactobacillus hilgardii, the same bacteria that is used to ferment cabbage in the preparation of the traditional Asian dish known as kimchi. PharmaGABA is a registered trademark of Pharma Foods International Co., Ltd. (Japan).




Rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea), also commonly known as rose root, is a perennial flowering plant, native to the Northern and Arctic regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. Rhodiola has a long history of use in traditional herbalism for the treatment of conditions such as anxiety and depression. Rhodiola has been extensively studied in northeastern Europe for over 35 years and is categorized as an adaptogen because of its ability to increase resistance to chemical, biological, and physical stressors.


Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a very common culinary herb. Its leaves and oil have been used as a spice in cooking and beverages for generations, and its oil has been used in soaps and perfumes due to its pleasant and distinct fragrance. Historically, rosemary oil has also been used for medicinal purposes, as treatment for ailments ranging from digestive issues such as heartburn, gas, and bloating, to liver and gallbladder complaints, to improving energy and concentration. Rosemary oil is also a source of the phytocannabinoid, beta-caryophyllene.



Sirtuins (SIRT) are a family of proteins that play a role in aging by regulating cellular health. They are responsible for critical biological functions like DNA expression and aspects of aging. SIRT rely heavily on the presence of NAD+. Because SIRT activity is so dependent on NAD+, the two compounds are linked to cellular lifespan, metabolism, and even regulation of inflammation. As NAD+ pools decline naturally during the aging process, SIRT function will decline as well. Consequently, maintaining optimal levels of NAD+ will also help maintain healthy SIRT activity and promote optimal mitochondrial function and may help slow the aging process.


You will never find shellac in our products. Quite different from the varnish-like substance used in woodworking projects, this shellac is a resinous substance secreted by the insect, Laccifer lacca, that is used in the dietary supplement and pharmaceutical industries for its clear-coating and adhesive properties. Essentially it is what gives some medicinal tablets their shiny look.








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